Uric acid is a substance synthesized by the liver and forms the basis of RNA and DNA nucleotides. The level of uric acid in the body speaks to the current state of health. Its increase or decrease can significantly worsen a person's well-being, and in such situations one cannot do without medical assistance.
The main causes and symptoms of an increase in uric acid
This pathology is also called hyperuricemia. Medical specialists identify the following main reasons for the increase in the level of uric acid in the body:
- arterial hypertension;
- endocrine system diseases (diabetes mellitus, acromegaly, hypoparathyroidism);
- high cholesterol levels;
- kidney disease;
- blood diseases.
With an increased uric acid in the body, the patient experiences characteristic symptoms, the degree of manifestation of which depends on the main cause of the pathology. Most often, the following signs indicate this:
- increased fatigue;
- the occurrence of dental calculus;
- chronic fatigue;
- diathesis on the hands and cheeks.
In some cases, there may be an asymptomatic course of hyperuricemia. It is believed that every fifth inhabitant of Russia has an increased level of uric acid without clinical pathology. The cause of the pathology in this case may be a hereditary factor. If any of the immediate family members have hyperuricemia, it is recommended to have a blood test at least twice a year.
Other factors in the development of the disease
The following phenomena in the body can also lead to the development of hyperuricemia:
- diseases occurring against the background of massive tissue decay (burn shock and others);
- acute renal failure and urolithiasis;
- Lesch-Nyhan syndrome - a genetic disease that leads to the accumulation of purines in the body;
- Down's syndrome, accompanied by impaired purine metabolism;
- erectile dysfunction against the background of a significant increase in the level of purine metabolism in the blood.
There are other nonspecific factors that cause hyperuricemia, which include:
- Taking some medicines (Aspirin, Furosemide, Theophylline, Phenothiazines and others).
- A diet rich in purine bases. Hyperuricemia is also known as the disease of aristocrats, since the diet of representatives of high society is usually characterized by an excess of meat and fish products, red wine, and various by-products containing purines in significant quantities.
- Any alcoholic beverages, including beer, negatively affect the functioning of the liver and kidneys, which can also cause hyperuricemia. Long-term diets are also harmful, because of which the excretory function of the kidneys is also often disrupted.
- Excessive exercise leads to the development of hyperuricemia due to increased protein consumption.
Diagnosis of uric acid levels
To check the level of uric acid, venous blood is drawn, and, as a rule, the results become known within 24 hours. For children under 12 years old, the norm of uric acid is 120-330 μmol / L, for women under 60 years old - 200-300 μmol / L, and for men under 60 years old - 250-400 μmol / L. At an older age, the norm for women is already 210-430 μmol / L, and for men - 250-480 μmol / L.
In order for the study to reflect an accurate result, it is recommended to refrain from eating food for eight hours before taking the test. Also, 2-3 days before the procedure, you should avoid taking any medications, physical overload, alcohol, food rich in purines and proteins.
If an increased level of uric acid is detected, a more thorough diagnosis of the body is required to establish the exact causes of this condition. Only treatment of the underlying pathology can completely eliminate hyperuricemia. With increased uric acid, regardless of the cause of the disease, the patient is prescribed a special diet with a decrease in the amount of protein products in the diet. Meat and canned foods, fish and smoked meats, mushrooms and legumes, chocolate and coffee, and alcohol are excluded. At the same time, the share of fresh fruits and vegetables, cereals, eggs and fermented milk products is increasing. It is recommended to take decoctions of rosehip and bran.
Patients with hyperuricemia are advised to fight excess weight. In some cases, this is already enough to get rid of hyperuricemia without specialized treatment. It is also important to increase the daily drinking regimen to 2-3 liters. In addition to clean water, it is allowed to drink fruit and vegetable juices, fruit drinks.
In severe cases, drug therapy is prescribed, which includes taking the following drugs:
Suitable medications are prescribed by a general practitioner or endocrinologist, who also periodically monitors the treatment by measuring acid levels in urine and blood. It is allowed to use folk remedies as a strengthening therapy, for example, decoctions of birch buds, lingonberry leaves and nettles, taken one glass twice a day until improvements appear.
Causes and Treatment of Low Uric Acid
A low uric acid level (hypouricemia) is also a serious condition that requires diagnosis and treatment. The following reasons for this pathology are distinguished:
- hereditary xanthine oxidase deficiency;
- hereditary phosphorylase deficiency;
- chronic kidney and bladder diseases;
- gene mutations (genes URAT1 and GLUT9), leading to impaired absorption of uric acid in the proximal renal tubules;
- an increase in the volume of extracellular fluid against the background of pathological thirst - polydipsia and with significant doses of intravenous drugs;
- cerebral syndrome;
- parenteral nutrition with purine deficiency (prescribed for various abnormalities in the body);
- HIV infection that affects the brain, resulting in a lack of uric acid;
- oncological diseases against the background of protein and purine deficiency;
- enterocolitis against the background of impaired absorption of protein by the intestine;
- early pregnancy, characterized by an increase in the total circulating blood volume that dilutes uric acid.
Some nonspecific factors can also lead to the development of hypouricemia, for example, a low-purine diet with limited fish and meat. A similar situation often occurs among low-income people, as well as supporters of a vegetarian lifestyle. In addition, an increased diuretic effect and constant excretion of acid from the body are observed in those who abuse tea and coffee. Also, hypouricemia is caused by taking certain drugs, for example, losartan, glucose, trimethoprim, estrogen hormones and others.
A decrease in uric acid levels is accompanied by the following symptoms:
- impaired vision and hearing;
- loss of skin sensitivity;
- asthenia - changes in the emotional background;
- increased fatigue;
- memory impairment.
In severe cases, hypouricemia causes paralysis with subsequent death or multiple sclerosis, leading to multiple lesions of the nervous tissue. The main treatment for the disease is the normalization of nutrition with an increase in the level of protein in the diet. The recommended rate of this component per day is 1 g per kilogram of body weight for women, and for men - 2.5-4 g per kilogram of body weight.For accelerated weight normalization, patients are recommended periodic physical activity, as well as additional intake of dry protein mixtures containing an increased amount of pure protein.