Lichen is a disease that can disrupt not only a person's health, but also his appearance. In addition, some types of lichen can be contagious.
Depriving is a name for a whole group of various diseases. All types of lichen are united by the following symptoms:
- The skin lesion looks like light or dark spots;
- It is accompanied by scaling, itching, or hair loss at the site of the lesion;
- Occasionally it provokes an imbalance in the general well-being of a person.
Children can develop shingles after close contact with sick animals or people. Also, the occurrence of lichen in children can be caused by a decrease in immunity, taking antibiotics or antihistamines for a long time.
The varicella-zoster virus is believed to be the root cause of shingles. Varicella-zoster is a virus that penetrates into nerve endings and nodes, which can not manifest itself for a long time. A decrease in human immunity can provoke the occurrence of this skin lesion when:
- Protracted illnesses;
- HIV infection;
- Chemotherapy or radiation treatment;
- Conditions after organ transplant;
- Blood diseases;
- Severe hypothermia;
- Systemic diseases requiring treatment with hormones, glucocorticoids or cytostatics;
- Serious stress.
- Slight fever with chills;
- Rash with discolored contents.
An accurate diagnosis is made on the basis of an examination by an infectious disease specialist and a dermatologist. In rare cases, microscopy and immunofluorescence may be required. For the treatment of shingles outside the hospital, the doctor may prescribe:
- Antiviral drugs: Acyclovir (Zovirax, Virolex), Valavir, Famciclovir. These drugs suppress viruses, lowering symptoms of the disease and preventing complications;
- Immunotherapy by administering immunoglobulins;
- Anti-inflammatory (pain relieving) pharmaceuticals: Ibuprofen, Nimesil, Paracetamol;
- Treatment of rashes with alcoholic mixtures of antiseptics (brilliant greens, fucorcin);
- Antihistamines: Loratadin, Suprastin, Fenistil.
The disease manifests itself in the appearance of pink scaly patches on the skin. People 15-40 years old are most susceptible to its development in spring or autumn. Pink lichen can serve as a complication after suffering a cold. The clear root cause of this pathology is still unknown, but the "culprit" is the herpes group virus, which got to a person with a predisposition to allergies. The disease is not contagious.
An increase in temperature and the appearance of other signs of the disease (nausea, joint pain, impotence, pulse jumps) begins after the appearance of the first spots. At the beginning of this pathology, large (3-5 cm in diameter) pink plaques with distinct boundaries in the number of 1-3 pieces are seen; they are called maternal. A week later, the remaining spots ("daughter") appear. They are smaller in diameter and have the following features:
- Pink colour;
- Peel off;
- Are located on the abdomen, back, neck, thighs, shoulders, legs and arms, in the folds of the skin; they "lie" on Langer's lines;
In the future, the spots grow to 2-2.5 cm, their middle turns yellow and begins to peel off. Then the spots turn white and disappear, leaving behind light areas.
The diagnosis is made by a skin doctor based on examination and dermatoscopy. At the same time, he can prescribe a biopsy, culture, analysis for syphilis. At home, a person is advised to adhere to a hypoallergenic diet and not take a bath. Do not use skin-irritating soap solutions or wear synthetic clothing.
Chronic lesions of the skin, nails and the superficial layer of the mucous membranes of the non-inflammatory type.Mostly affects women. A clear underlying cause is unknown, but it is believed that the disease develops due to impaired immune and metabolic processes in the body.
- A rash of a reddish, crimson or reddish-purple color of irregular shape with a shiny surface appears on the skin;
- the rash is itchy and in rare cases flaky;
- formations protrude above the level of the skin, forming nodules, but can be in the form of rings, tubercles, erosions and ulcers;
- on the mucous membranes of the mouth and genitals, nodules of a pale pink color are seen;
- at first they are formed in groups, and then they merge;
- fresh formations are seen near old ones;
- in areas where there was a rash before, hyperpigmented areas are formed;
- Grooves form on the nails with this disease.
- Application of PUVA therapy, selective phototherapy;
- Regional use of ointments with glucocorticoids: "Celestoderm", "Advantan", antihistamines, B-group vitamins.
This is a disease of the upper layer of the skin, which has a chronic nature of the course, in which multi-colored flaky spots appear on the skin. Mostly young people suffer from this disease. The development of pityriasis versicolor is provoked by the yeast fungi Malassezia and Pitirosporum, which are able to pass from one person to another under specific circumstances: a change in the pH of the skin of a healthy person; profuse sweating; decreased skin immunity; endocrine disorders; when the skin of a sick person comes into contact with the injured skin of a healthy person.
There is neither an increase in temperature nor symptoms of intoxication with this disease. The first sign is the appearance of spots on the skin of the body and neck, which:
- Various shapes;
- Do not protrude above the skin level;
- On tanned skin, the spots look snow-white;
- With a long existence, spots of pink, yellowish, coffee and brown color are visible on the skin at the same time; there is no redness or swelling;
- Do not itch;
- Gradually merging, they are transformed into areas with a precise border and a "ragged" edge.
Versicolor versicolor is treated with anti-inflammatory and antifungal agents (sulfuric, salicylic ointment, Lamisil, Terbinafin gels). Also used tablets: "Ketoconazole", "Itraconazole".
This is the single name for two diseases of a fungal nature that are provoked by highly contagious pathology - microsporia and trichophytosis. They get sick from a sick person or animal.
- Pink spots appear on the skin with a center of snow-white scales and distinct borders;
- The spots are itchy;
- Spots are seen where there was contact of the fungus with wounded skin;
- When spots appear on the head, hair breaks off: with microsporia - at a height of 5-8 mm, with trichophytosis - at a height of 1-3 mm;
- With the deepest lesion, two months after infection, a white-yellow lesion can be seen on the hair, and abscesses with pus on the skin.
The use of antifungal agents (Lamisil, Ketoconazole, Triderm), sulfuric or sulfur-tar ointment. When the scalp is affected, antifungal agents are used in pill form.
The disease is caused by the Malassezia mushroom. He lives for a rather long time in the ducts of the sebaceous glands, without causing practically any pathological signs. However, with a decrease in immunity or too much sweating, this fungus begins to manifest itself.
On the body, spots of small diameter appear with uneven edges, which are flaky. Soon they combine to form a conglomerate and form a large spot, which can be rainbow, yellowish or coffee-colored. Doesn't itch.
Diagnosis is based on information obtained during examination by a dermatologist, after examination under a microscope or in fluorescent light. Pathology is treated with the use of local (in the form of ointments and shampoos) and systemic (in the form of tablets and injections) antifungal agents. The patient is advised to maintain a similar life format for a long time, in order to subsequently prevent the influence of the fungus on the body from the ducts of the sebaceous glands.
If rashes, plaques of a strange color and shape, pus-filled papules are found on the skin, you should immediately contact a dermatologist. This is due to the fact that simultaneously with shingles, an infectious disease can also appear. Then self-medication can only aggravate the situation. Only a doctor is able to accurately differentiate the type of a given disease and choose the appropriate treatment.