Sometimes a person may experience pain: headache, toothache, joint pain. And I want to relieve any physical suffering as soon as possible, so people rush to pharmacies to choose the most effective pain reliever. But the choice of pain relievers is huge, and sometimes difficult to do.
All drugs are divided into pharmacological groups, in which they are combined according to a similar pharmacological action or producing substance. The group of analgesics includes narcotic drugs: "Morphine", "Promedol", "Fentanyl" and "Omnopon", which you cannot buy in a pharmacy, and you don’t need to. For other drugs that are traditionally referred to as analgesics, pain relief is usually not the main action. Non-narcotic analgesics are non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, among which there are several subgroups located below the principle of effectiveness: from the lowest to the highest.
Pyrazolones are a fairly old pharmacological group, which is not inferior to its positions due to the cheapness of drugs. This group includes several active substances that can be found in pharmacies under different names: sodium metamizole ("Analgin", "Baralgin", "Tempalgin") and propiphenazone, the trade name of which coincides with the active ingredient. It should be noted that preparations containing metamizole sodium are prohibited in most countries of the world.
Salicylic acid derivatives are another good old inhabitant of first aid kits. The most common active ingredient in this group is acetylsalicylic acid ("Aspirin", "Acecardol", "Cardiask", "Trombo ass", "Upsarin oops"). Mesalazine ("Salofalk", "Pentasa") belongs to the same group. These drugs have anti-inflammatory and antipyretic effects, and acetylsalicylic acid preparations also reduce blood viscosity and prevent the formation of blood clots.
Anilides are a well-known group for a long time, but it is worth using it precisely for the sake of antipyretic, and not anesthetic effect, because these drugs have a toxic effect on the liver. The most important anilide is paracetamol, its analogs are Antigrippin, Panadol, Tsefekon, Efferalgan.
Acetic acid derivatives and related compounds are one of the most popular groups of drugs in our time. These include active substances and drugs: ketorolac (Ketorol, Ketorolac, Ketanov), aceclofenac (Aertal), diclofenac (Voltaren, Ortofen, Ortofer, Diklovit, Ortoflex), indomethacin ("Indovis", "Indocid", "Indotard", "Metindol"). The popularity of these drugs is due to their high effectiveness, as well as a wide range of indications for use: muscle and joint pain, toothache, painful menstruation and trauma.
Derivatives of propionic acid, despite their apparent simplicity and long-standing acquaintance with them, drugs work great and quickly relieve pain: ibuprofen (Brufen, Ibufen, Nurofen, Mig), ketoprofen (Kketonal, Fastum gel, Flamax), naproxen (Nalgezin, Pronaxen, Sanaprox).
Oxycams are a modern group of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs that are most effective for rheumatic, muscle and joint pain. These include meloxicam ("Amelotex", "Artrozan", "Meloflex"), tenoxicam ("Texamen", "Tenikam"), piroxicam ("Finalgel", "Revmador"), lornoxicam ("Ksefokam", "Ksefokam Rapid") …
Coxibs are another modern group that saves many patients suffering from severe arthritis, arthrosis and spondylitis. In this group, it is worth paying attention to etoricoxib ("Arcoxia") and celecoxib ("Celebrex").
All of these drugs have anti-inflammatory and antipyretic effects.By blocking inflammatory mediators, they relieve edema, which often causes pain: edematous tissues squeeze nerve endings, causing painful sensations. All non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs have a side effect that you need to be careful with - an irritating effect on the gastric mucosa, which can provoke an exacerbation of gastritis or peptic ulcer disease.
There is another group of pain relievers - opioid non-narcotic analgesics. These drugs are prescribed only by a doctor and are dispensed strictly by prescription. Since they are very powerful analgesics, they are usually used in oncological practice and after surgery. This group includes Tramadol, Naloxone, Naltrexon, Stadol and Nalbufin.
There is such a thing as neuropathic pain - it does not arise due to objective stimulation of neurons due to trauma, edema or inflammation. Neuropathic pain occurs due to the pathological excitation of neurons (they are popularly called pain receptors), although there is no reason for pain. For the treatment of such painful sensations, drugs of a not quite characteristic group are used. This is due to the fact that these drugs are able to act directly on neurons and remove their excitation. We are talking about antiepileptic drugs: pregabalin ("Lyrica", "Algerica") and gabapentin ("Gabagamma", "Tebantin", "Konvalis").
Of course, before going to the pharmacy for a medicine, you need to visit a doctor so that he can prescribe you an adequate pain reliever. After all, you need to know what causes the pain, and what drugs are best to choose specifically for such pain.