With the onset of menstruation, the female body is able to perform a reproductive function. This period of growing up begins for each girl individually. On average, menstruation begins at 12-14 years old, but there are exceptions. The appearance of the first menstruation is influenced by many things - hormones, nutrition, territory of residence, etc.
The first menstruation occurs after the appearance of secondary sexual characteristics in girls. By about 10 years of age, significant changes occur in the body - hair begins to appear on the pubis and armpits, the amount of female hormones - follicle-stimulating and luteinizing - increases. Many girls begin to outstrip their male peers in height. The external forms of the girl also change - the breasts begin to form, the hips are rounded, under the influence of the "adult" hormonal background the girls lose weight or get better.
Scientists have noticed that many factors affect the maturation of eggs, for example, the average annual temperature of the environment. So, among the peoples living closer to the equator, there is an earlier puberty than among the peoples of the north. For women from the north, menstruation occurs on average at 14-15 years old, and for southerners - at 10-11.
For puberty, normal functioning of the endocrine glands is necessary, but all hormones are produced with the participation of minerals, vitamins and provitamins. If the body lacks any components, there is a malfunction in the work of the endocrine glands and puberty is delayed.
The appearance of menstruation is also influenced by the psycho-emotional environment in which the girl lives. So, if the conditions in the family are extremely unfavorable and the child is under constant stress, there will be a failure in the nervous regulation of maturation processes and menstruation will not come on time. In such girls, during menstruation, a pronounced pain syndrome is often observed, which decreases when taking antispasmodics.
All somatic diseases affect the development of the body, infectious pathologies are especially reflected in puberty. If a girl has inflammatory diseases of the genitals (for example, adnexitis, which occurs against the background of general hypothermia), the first menstruation occurs early, is extremely painful, and sometimes accompanied by bleeding. In cases where a girl has chronic somatic diseases (heart disease, gastritis, etc.) and regularly undergoes therapeutic courses of pharmacological drugs, she may have a delay in puberty, because each medicine acts on the entire body and can slow down the process of egg formation. There are special disorders in those girls who suffer from thyroid or pituitary gland pathology, because take hormonal drugs.