It is often possible to hear from mothers that a speech therapist diagnosed their child with OHP. But, if you ask them what it is, many of them find it difficult to answer. Simply because they themselves do not know.
What is ONR
General speech underdevelopment in children is a violation of the semantic and sound (or phonetic) side of the speech system. It is often observed in pathologies such as alalia (in each case), dysarthria and rhinolallia (sometimes). With impaired intelligence, hearing, delayed speech development of children with reduced hearing, oligophrenia, OHP can act as a secondary defect. This is very important to take into account!
How OHR manifests itself
Basically, the general underdevelopment of speech manifests itself monotonously. The symptoms are as follows:
- late onset of speech: the child speaks the first words at 3-4, or even at 5 years old;
- speech is not phonetically formalized enough and is grammatical;
- the child understands what he is being told, but cannot express his own thoughts correctly;
- speech in children with OHP is practically incomprehensible to others.
In addition, speech therapists know a few more symptoms of OHP. Therefore, try to visit him in a timely manner in order to identify this disease as early as possible and correct the child's speech.
It should be said that the pronunciation, phonemic hearing, grammatical structure and vocabulary of children with OHP are severely impaired. The cause of the disease can be:
- toxicosis, intoxication, infection in the mother during pregnancy;
- pathology of the natal period;
- brain trauma and diseases of the central nervous system in the first years of life;
- unfavorable conditions for training and education;
- mental deprivation (absence or only limitation of the possibility of satisfying vital needs);
- damage to the brain of a child that occurs during pregnancy, childbirth, the first year of life.
- some other factors.
Underdevelopment of speech in children can be expressed in different ways.
Depending on the degree of unformed speech, 4 degrees of its underdevelopment are distinguished.
Children of this level do not speak. They express their thoughts and desires with the help of facial expressions, gestures, babbling words, they can designate different objects with the same babbling word (for example, "bibi" is their plane, steamer, and car). They are characterized by the use of one-word sentences, incorrect composition of their structures, inconsistency in the pronunciation of sounds, reduction of complex words to 2-3 syllabic (for example, the word "bed" they can speak as "avat"). Children with mental retardation, who have the same state of speech, differ from children with first-degree OHP in that they have a passive vocabulary that significantly exceeds the active one. As a rule, such a difference is not observed in oligophrenic children.
The peculiarities of children with OHP of the second degree include the fact that, in addition to speaking babbling words and showing gestures, they know how to use common words. However, the child's speech is still poor. Picture-based storytelling is structured primitively, although better than in children with OHP 1 degree. The child practically does not use and does not understand the words that he rarely uses in everyday life. Does not distinguish between case, form of numbers and gender. When pronouncing words, he makes many mistakes, practically does not use particles and conjunctions.
This level is characterized by the emergence of detailed phrasal speech, although not entirely correct. Children with general speech underdevelopment of the third degree speak with others only in the presence of those adults who can give appropriate explanations, "decipher" their words. Free communication is difficult. Children with OHP of this level try to avoid expressions and words that are difficult for them, experience great difficulties in making correct sentences, make mistakes when constructing complex sentences and word formations. They can make sentences based on the picture.
Children have only slight deficiencies in the differentiation of sounds ([P - P ']). They are not able to retain a phonemic image in their memory, and therefore they often rearrange the sounds and syllables in words, repeat a certain syllable in each word, and reduce vowels when confluent.In some cases, syllables can be omitted and sounds can be added. They have slight difficulties in speech contact and spontaneous pronunciation.
General speech underdevelopment of any degree is corrected. Therefore, it is very important to contact a speech therapist in a timely manner and read various pedagogical and psychological literature, in which the issue of vocabulary education and the development of children with OHP is widely sanctified.