Why Does Blood Appear In Sputum

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Why Does Blood Appear In Sputum
Why Does Blood Appear In Sputum

Video: Why Does Blood Appear In Sputum

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Video: What does blood in sputum signify? - Dr. Hirennappa B Udnur 2023, February
Anonim

The appearance of a cough with sputum indicates an inflammatory process in the respiratory organs. With severe acute inflammation of the respiratory tract, rupture of the vessel walls is possible, which leads to the appearance of bloody streaks in the sputum. Some long-term processes (tuberculosis, oncology) cause profuse bleeding when coughing.

Sputum with blood when coughing
Sputum with blood when coughing

Instructions

Step 1

Upper respiratory tract infections cause mucosal inflammation. When bacteria begin to multiply on the mucous membrane of the trachea and bronchi, the body triggers a defense reaction, in which the action of leukocytes at the site of infection is activated. This process leads to hyperemia and loosening of the upper layer of the mucous membrane, accompanied by the release of active substances that support inflammation. Small blood vessels, which are located in the thickness of the mucous layer, also react to these substances. Therefore, the capillaries of the trachea and bronchi are thinned and injected, i.e. upon close examination of the mucous membrane (through the eyepiece of the bronchoscope), small punctate hemorrhages are observed, resembling traces of injections.

Step 2

Inflammatory processes of the respiratory tract are accompanied by a cough, this is a reflex reaction of the body to an irritating component - phlegm. When coughing, the muscles of the chest and press contract very sharply, and the mucous membrane vibrates. Thanks to this mechanism, sputum flows out of the lungs and bronchi. Sometimes when you cough up phlegm, you may see streaks of blood. This phenomenon is due to the fact that when you cough, the mucous membrane "twitches" and the thinned inflamed vessels in the upper layer cannot withstand the pressure and burst. In this case, a small amount of capillary blood flows out, which has a light red color. In sputum, capillary blood appears as scarlet streaks.

Step 3

The appearance of blood clots in sputum indicates a rupture of wider vessels; this phenomenon can be provoked either by total inflammation of the bronchi, or oncological processes, or pulmonary tuberculosis. The appearance of bright red clots in the sputum against the background of a cold usually indicates a pronounced inflammatory pathology, in which large vessels are affected.

Step 4

In oncological processes, the disintegration of tissues with the vessels in them is observed. Such processes when coughing are accompanied by copious discharge, which has a dark brown or "rusty" color and an unpleasant odor. Tumor processes in the respiratory tract are long and often pass without an increase in temperature and pain, therefore, the appearance of sputum with blood is one of the first diagnostic signs.

Step 5

Pulmonary tuberculosis in stages 2-3 is accompanied by the appearance of sputum with blood. With negative dynamics of the pathological process, first the presence of scarlet veins is noted, then the amount of blood in the sputum increases. Severe forms of tuberculosis are accompanied by pulmonary bleeding.

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