Menopause is characterized by a combination of hormonal changes, the leading of which is menopause. The appearance of menstruation during this period is a formidable sign that requires immediate medical advice.
Reasons for the appearance of menstruation after menopause
Periods after menopause can appear for numerous reasons. In most pathological cases, they appear no less than 6 months after the onset of menopause. There is a theory according to which menstruation after menopause comes due to the growth of the endometrium. This process is associated with an excess of tocopherol (vitamin E).
If bleeding begins 6 months or a year after menopause, this may indicate inflammation of the endometrium, cervix, myometrium, vagina or ovaries. To establish an accurate diagnosis, you need to consult a gynecologist. After a year or less, bleeding appears due to certain diseases or dysfunctions of internal organs (cirrhosis of the liver, abnormalities in the thyroid gland, disruption of natural coagulation). Common causes of pathological bleeding after menopause include malignant and benign neoplasms in the organs of the female reproductive system.
Benign tumors include polyps, fibroids. However, in some cases, they can degenerate into malignant ones. Approximately 5-10% of postmenopausal bleeding is directly related to cervical or endometrial cancer. Other diseases that can cause bleeding include endometrial hyperplasia, polycystic ovary syndrome, atrophic vaginitis, and cervicitis.
Hormonal causes of bleeding after menopause
Bleeding after menopause can be associated with hormonal imbalances. Lack of progesterone in the body affects the internal state of the endometrium and causes atrophy. As a result, spotting appears, but they still differ in color from menstruation and bleeding in color, consistency and volume.
A year after the onset of menopause, iatrogenic bleeding may appear due to the regular intake of certain medications. Sometimes they are observed during hormone replacement therapy. The reason for the appearance of menstruation may be an increased production of progesterone, which is provided by cyclic therapy. In this case, bleeding is considered as a variant of the norm.
Usually the menstrual cycle is restored completely, but it differs from the usual menstruation in the absence of clots and a small amount of discharge. Such bleeding lasts 3-4 days for a month, it is tolerated quite easily, since it is not accompanied by malaise, severe pain.