A burn is an injury to the skin resulting from contact with a hot surface, a caustic chemical, an electric arc, or after prolonged exposure to the sun or exposure to radioactive radiation. This type of injury occurs quite often and sometimes requires immediate assistance. Therefore, it is so important to be able to assess the severity of the burn in order to take adequate measures.
The severity of the burn depends on the depth of tissue damage, the area of the lesion, the cause of the burn and their location.
Burns to the eyes, fingers, face, genitals and anus are considered more serious than burns to other parts of the body to the same degree.
In world medicine, depending on all these parameters, there are three degrees of burn. There are four of them in the Russian medical reference book, and the fourth implies the presence of charred tissues, as well as deep damage to muscles, tendons, blood vessels, right down to the bone.
First degree burn
This is the mildest degree of burn. It is characterized by damage to only the upper layer of the skin - the epidermis. May cause slight swelling and redness of the skin, but without blistering.
A first-degree burn most often occurs after prolonged exposure to the sun, as well as after short-term contact with a hot object.
The pain from this type of burn goes away quickly enough, the swelling and redness subside, as a rule, within 3-4 days. No special treatment is required, such lesions do not leave scars.
Second degree burn
In this case, the damage affects two layers of the skin - the epidermis and the dermis. Such a burn is very painful, it can be determined by the appearance of blisters with a clear liquid and edema that does not subside for a long time.
Such burns can be caused by boiling water spilled on the skin, too long exposure to the bright sun, or a short touch on a hot object.
Treatment takes from one to two to three weeks, a partial discoloration of the skin at the site of injury is possible, and in some cases a scar remains.
Damage to the dermis and epidermis is considered severe if the area of damage covers more than 10% of the skin.
Third degree burn
A third-degree burn is a burn that affects not only all the skin, but also the subcutaneous fat layer. In severe cases, muscles and other types of tissues are also affected. Since in this case the cells responsible for skin regeneration are destroyed, the body is not able to heal such burns on its own. Serious and long-term external treatment is required, up to and including a skin transplant.
This damage is caused by open fire, electric shock, prolonged contact with a red-hot object or corrosive substance, and much more.
Unlike first and second degree burns, these burns can cause shock and even death. Severe damage to more than 20 percent of the skin is considered. The treatment takes several months, and scars almost always remain.