Surgical treatment of the thyroid gland is prescribed if drug therapy is ineffective. Thyroid surgery should be performed in specialized medical institutions by experienced doctors.
Indications for thyroid surgery include: malignant and benign tumors, multinodular euthyroid goiter, recurrent nodular goiter, nodule calcification, toxic goiter that does not respond to drug treatment, nodular neoplasm with minor clinical symptoms (voice change, sore throat, poor appetite, increasing general weakness, etc.), an increase in one of the nodes during the period of treatment.
Operations on the thyroid gland are still among the most difficult surgical procedures. This is due to the peculiarities of the physiology and anatomical location of the endocrine organ. When prescribing a surgical intervention in cases of thyroid pathologies, the doctor should be especially careful. The operation is very stressful for the body, which is why most qualified specialists understand that the prevention of surgical interventions is a priority line of therapy. However, in some cases, it is this type of treatment that helps to normalize the condition, eliminate symptoms and even save lives.
Thyroid surgeries differ in the scope of the intervention and the method of removing the thyroid tissue. There are intrafascial, intracapsular and extrafascial methods. Intracapsular is used for enucleation (complete removal) of nodes from the thyroid gland in order to maximize the preservation of unchanged tissues. The intrafascial method is used for various forms of goiter, while the possibility of injury to the branches of the recurrent laryngeal nerves is excluded, the parathyroid glands located outside are preserved.
The extrafascial method is used only in oncological practice. The volume of the operation will depend on the nature, location and size of the pathology, the amount of tissue left. The most commonly used partial, subtotal resection and extirpation of one or both lobes of the thyroid gland. Complete removal of thyroid tissue (thyroidectomy) is most often used in the treatment of diffuse toxic goiter, multinodular goiter, and cancer.
Subtotal resection of the thyroid gland consists in removing the tissues of the organ, leaving small parts of it. It is used in the treatment of multinodular goiter, hypertrophic forms of autoimmune thyroiditis, diffuse toxic goiter. Hemithyroidectomy is the removal of one lobe of the thyroid gland. Such an operation is prescribed for toxic nodular goiter, follicular tumors. Resection of the isthmus of the thyroid gland is used in the treatment of nodular goiter with the localization of the node in the isthmus.