What Is Fraught With The Expansion Of The Subarachnoid Space

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What Is Fraught With The Expansion Of The Subarachnoid Space
What Is Fraught With The Expansion Of The Subarachnoid Space

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Nature has reliably protected the brain and spinal cord. They are surrounded by several shells. Adjacent to the brain is a soft membrane of connective tissue. At some distance from it there is another membrane formed by connective tissue and resembling a thin network in structure, for which it was called arachnoid (arachnoid). The space between these membranes is called the subarachnoid.

Neurosonographic examination of the newborn
Neurosonographic examination of the newborn

The subarachnoid space is filled with cerebrospinal fluid - cerebrospinal fluid. The total amount of cerebrospinal fluid is 120 to 140 ml. Above the large furrows and crevices of the brain are cisterns - areas where the amount of cerebrospinal fluid is especially large.

CSF comes from the ventricles of the brain, and the outgrowths of the arachnoid membrane absorb it. Disturbance of circulation leads to expansion of the subarachnoid space.

Reasons for the expansion of the subarachnoid space in adults

Violation of the circulation of cerebrospinal fluid is always associated with some pathological process affecting the brain. It can be a traumatic brain injury, a brain tumor, a stroke, an infectious brain disease (for example, meningoencephalitis). All these traumatic factors trigger the process of atrophy, the amount of gray and white matter decreases, which leads to the expansion of the subarachnoid space.

There are three degrees of severity of such a violation: mild - expansion by 1-2 mm, medium - by 3-4 mm and severe - more than 4 mm.

Possible clinical manifestations are depletion of mental activity, as well as pseudobulbar syndrome, characterized by a triad of signs: speech impairment caused by paralysis of the muscles involved in articulation, loss of sonority of the voice (speech becomes whispering) and impaired swallowing. Headaches and visual impairment due to congestion in the fundus are also possible.

Timely treatment, including surgery, allows such patients to return to a full life. Even if it is not possible to achieve full work adaptation, a person can at least do without outside help in everyday affairs.

Expansion of the subarachnoid space in infants

In infants, the reason for the expansion of the subarachnoid space, as a rule, is an increase in intracranial pressure, birth trauma, or an infection that has affected the brain as a result of complications of otitis media or a runny nose. Diagnosis is based on neurosonographic findings.

Often the prognosis turns out to be favorable: by the age of two, the subarachnoid space and the ventricles of the brain return to normal by themselves, the child seems to "outgrow" the disease. But you shouldn't count on it. This violation threatens the child with developmental delay, therefore it must be treated.

A neurologist prescribes treatment. It includes B vitamins and other drugs, as well as antibiotics if the disease was caused by an infection.

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