In an ectopic pregnancy, the fertilized egg attaches and begins to develop outside the uterine cavity. Most often, tubal pregnancy occurs, less often the ovum develops in the abdominal cavity, in the ovary or cervix. It is important to identify this pathology as early as possible in order to avoid serious consequences, including rupture of the fallopian tube, peritonitis, and internal bleeding.
In the first weeks, signs that the ovum is attached outside the uterine cavity may be absent or coincide with signs of a normal pregnancy. There is an absence of menstruation, an increase and soreness of the mammary glands, sometimes toxicosis appears.
Usually, from 4 weeks of pregnancy, pains in the lower abdomen, bloody discharge appear. These symptoms are not specific signs of an ectopic pregnancy - pain can be caused by stretching of the uterus, spotting occurs in other pathological processes. However, any abdominal pain and unusual discharge that occurs during pregnancy should be a reason to see a doctor, especially if it becomes regular or increases in intensity over time.
Pain in the lower abdomen during an ectopic pregnancy can be localized in the area of attachment of the ovum - for example, on one side of the abdomen, if the pregnancy is tubal. Also, pain can intensify when turning the body or when moving, give it to the shoulder. Sometimes an ectopic pregnancy is accompanied by an increasing deterioration in the general condition - a woman suffers from dizziness, fever, pain in the intestines.
In some cases, an ectopic pregnancy can be diagnosed by a doctor during a routine bimanual examination if he finds that the size of the uterus does not correspond to the gestational age or there is a dense formation in the area of the fallopian tube. Soreness of the uterus on palpation can also alert a specialist - in this case, he will offer a more detailed examination, including ultrasound and control of the level of hCG (human chorionic gonadotropin) in the blood.
Somewhat more reliable than pain and spotting, signs of an ectopic pregnancy are considered to be a lower level of hCG than it should be at a certain stage of pregnancy, or the absence of an ovum in the uterine cavity, which can be found out by a specialist during an ultrasound examination. An ultrasound will help to find out exactly where the ovum is attached and whether there is a need for an operation.
A sharp sharp pain, accompanied by bleeding and a decrease in pressure - signs of termination of an ectopic pregnancy. Usually, this results in a rupture of the fallopian tube or damage to the organ to which the ovum was attached. This is a serious situation that threatens the life of a woman, in such cases, immediate admission of the patient to a hospital and surgical intervention is required.