Bowel diseases are currently a fairly common pathology, the occurrence of which is predisposed by hereditary factors, dietary patterns, and a habit of decreased physical activity. But the main provoking factor is the consumption of refined foods, which additionally contain large amounts of preservatives, as well as pathogenic microorganisms that infect the human gastrointestinal tract.
To identify bowel diseases, an attentive conversation between the patient and the doctor plays an important role. During the conversation, the patient can talk about his complaints, the age of their appearance and the development of symptoms, the sequence of their appearance.
Data on the characteristics of the patient's digestion are important - the presence of flatulence, a tendency to diarrhea or constipation, and the frequent change in these conditions.
In some cases, bowel disease can be suspected during an objective examination of the patient - there may be a change in the color of the skin and mucous membranes (pallor, yellowness, the appearance of bluish streaks on the skin).
In some diseases of the small and large intestines, signs of joint inflammation (arthritis), eye damage (uveitis - inflammation of the choroid) may appear.
A detailed laboratory examination of the patient is carried out - clinical tests of blood and urine, analysis of feces for the digestibility of dietary fiber are performed. In some cases, duodenal intubation is prescribed, followed by laboratory examination of the resulting contents of the duodenum (including testing for the carriage of parasitic microorganisms - lamblia, fluke, and other parasites).
Biochemical studies are of great importance for an accurate diagnosis - total blood protein and its fractions, blood lipid profile with a detailed study of all fractions, studies of carbohydrate metabolism.
In some cases, an immunological blood test is carried out to determine the presence of antibodies to cells of different parts of the intestine, as well as to parasites and microorganisms - the causative agents of the most common intestinal diseases.
Of the instrumental research methods, esophagogastroduodenoscopy is prescribed, which allows examining the esophagus, stomach and the upper part of the small intestine - the duodenum. For the study of the large intestine, sigmoidoscopy and colonoscopy are prescribed. In some cases, the focus of the disease can be detected by X-ray examination - fluoroscopy and X-ray after contrasting with a suspension of barium sulfate: when administered through the mouth or through an enema.
To assess the condition of adjacent organs - liver, spleen - an ultrasound examination of the abdominal organs is performed.