How To Diagnose Diabetes

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How To Diagnose Diabetes
How To Diagnose Diabetes

Video: How To Diagnose Diabetes

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Diabetes is a disease in which the metabolism is disturbed. The patient's pancreas produces insufficient or no insulin. At the same time, the sugar content in the blood rises sharply. The symptoms of the disease are quite typical, so the diagnosis of diabetes is not particularly difficult.

How to diagnose diabetes
How to diagnose diabetes

Instructions

Step 1

The reason for the increase in the level of sugar in the patient's blood is a decrease in the production of insulin. Insulin is a hormone produced by the pancreas. Its main function is to deliver glucose to the cells of the body. In its pure form, glucose can be assimilated only by cells of the brain and nerve tissues. All the rest - skin, muscle, bone - only in the presence of insulin.

Step 2

Foods consumed by a person are broken down in the stomach and intestines, as a result of which glucose enters the blood, which should provide the body with the energy necessary for life. Blood sugar rises. However, because there is little or no insulin, the glucose is not absorbed and the cells starve. The body releases its reserve stores of glucose - glycogen. The sugar rises again, but the cells are still starving. The main source of energy is fat, for the processing of which insulin is not required. A person loses weight, sometimes a lot. This usually occurs in type 1 diabetes.

Step 3

The blood sugar level at which glucose is excreted in the urine is called the kidney threshold. Usually it is 9, 0-10 mmol / l. At the same time, the patient's body also loses various salts and a large amount of water. As a consequence, frequent and profuse urination and thirst.

Step 4

In the process of breaking down fat, ketone bodies enter the bloodstream, which are then excreted in the urine in the form of acetone. Diabetic ketoacidosis develops. The smell of acetone from the mouth appears. The action of acetone on the body resembles poisoning. There is weakness, fatigue, abdominal pain, nausea, and sometimes vomiting.

Step 5

Thus, the primary signs of diabetes are: • the appearance of severe thirst; • the urine becomes colorless and sticky from sugar, its amount increases; • despite the increased appetite, weight loss is observed, sometimes significant; • if treatment is not started, ketoacidosis develops, the smell of acetone appears from mouth.

Step 6

All of the above is typical primarily for type I diabetes. No weight loss is observed in type II diabetes. On the contrary, patients are often overweight. First of all, constant thirst and increased fluid intake should be alarming.

Step 7

If you notice signs of diabetes mellitus, see your doctor immediately. The doctor will prescribe tests that should confirm or deny the primary diagnosis, establish the type of disease, assess the general condition of the body and the presence or absence of complications.

Step 8

The main analysis is to determine the level of blood sugar. In a healthy person, it does not exceed 6.1 mmol / l on an empty stomach. A more specific diagnostic method is a tissue glucose tolerance test. It is especially important if the level of glycemia is slightly increased, which does not allow for an unambiguous diagnosis. The patient takes a glucose solution. The diagnosis of diabetes is established if, after 2 hours, the glucose concentration exceeds 11 mmol / L. The test is carried out in the morning on an empty stomach. On the eve, it is recommended to exclude alcohol and drugs that increase the level of glycemia from consumption.

Step 9

These tests allow you to determine the level of glucose concentration at the time of the examination. An analysis to determine the level of glycated hemoglobin - HbA1c - allows us to conclude about the level of glycemia within approximately 3 months. It is considered normal if its value does not exceed 5, 9%.

Step 10

Additional diagnostic methods are tests for the determination of sugar and acetone in urine. The appearance of glucose in the urine indicates that the glycemic level exceeds 9 mmol / l, and the presence of acetone indicates the development of ketoacidosis, a serious complication that can end in a coma and even lead to the death of the patient. In a healthy person, glucose and acetone are absent in the urine.

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