Papilloma is a skin neoplasm with a thin stem of viral etiology. It should be noted that the causative agent of this disease is the human papillomavirus. Growths localized on the facial area, mainly on the lower and upper eyelids, cause not only aesthetic inconveniences, but can also degenerate into a malignant tumor. Therefore, if symptoms are found, it is imperative to consult a doctor.
Infection with the papilloma virus can occur through contact and household contact directly with the use of cosmetics, a common towel. However, the penetration of infection into the body does not at all mean the appearance of papillomas or warts in the near future. Often, the immune system itself copes with the virus and, accordingly, does not allow it to actively develop. It should be borne in mind that the formation of papillomas on the eyelids can occur due to a decrease in the general and local immune system.
The following conditions contribute to a decrease in local defense factors: conjunctivitis, blepharitis, the use of glucocorticoid hormones, impaired secretion of the lacrimal gland, acute dacryocystitis. General immunity can be significantly aggravated by reasons such as age-related changes, severe diseases of internal organs, frequent stress, chronic infectious ailments, bad habits, long-term use of drugs with an immunosuppressive effect.
It is important to know that papillomas on the eye can develop not only on the skin of the eyelids, but also on the conjunctiva. In the event of a tumor-like growth of an insignificant size on the skin of the eyelid, certain symptoms may not be present. As a rule, in such cases, the patient visits the ophthalmologist's office solely because of a cosmetic defect. If the papilloma is localized at the edge of the eyelid and conjunctivitis, or it has a large size, then in addition to the visible neoplasm, the following symptoms may be observed: incomplete closure of the eyelids when trying to close the eye, lacrimation, difficulty in blinking, systematic blepharitis and conjunctivitis, a feeling of sand and a foreign body in the eye apple.
Diagnosis of this disease consists in an external examination of the build-up. If a malignant etiology of papilloma is suspected, a cytological and histological examination of a sample of the affected tissue is mandatory. In the event that signs of a violation of immunity are found, then an examination of the immune status is carried out, namely, an immunogram is performed.
It is forbidden to remove papillomas formed on the eyelid at home. The fact is that the use of chemical medications can lead to the development of a corneal burn with the subsequent occurrence of blindness.
As a rule, the treatment of papillomatosis of the eyelids is based on etiological therapy - it consists of the use of antiviral drugs that help suppress activity, as well as remove the papillomavirus from the body; pathogenetic therapy - is to strengthen the local and general immune system; local treatment - includes the removal of the build-up in one of the following ways: electrocoagulation, cryotherapy with liquid nitrogen, laser therapy and the destruction of the papilloma by surgery.
Surgical treatment of papilloma is rarely performed due to their small size and close location of the eye.
Such methods as laser coagulation and cryodestruction have undoubted advantages due to the fact that after the procedure there are almost no traces of intervention. In addition, the use of cryotherapy does not require the administration of pain relievers at all.First, a little liquid nitrogen is applied to the papilloma, which freezes the damaged tissue. Ultimately, there is a malnutrition of the neoplasm, which leads to self-removal of the papilloma. When using a laser, the liquid area of the affected cells is evaporated, after which the dry residue burns out. Consequently, the evaporation of tumor cells occurs without the development of cicatricial changes.