Among benign neoplasms on the face are moles and birthmarks, which, under unfavorable conditions, can degenerate into malignant tumors. To prevent the spread of abnormal cells to healthy tissues and organs, they should be removed with a laser or surgically in combination with radiotherapy.
Facial neoplasms: general information about the pathology, the causes of its occurrence
Facial neoplasms are abnormal overgrowth of the dermis, characterized by an increase in the size and number of skin cells. The altered cells become the basis for the formation of a tumor, which from benign can transform into malignant. Also in oncology, the 3rd group of neoplasms is distinguished - these are precancerous skin conditions.
The main reason for the development of the pathological process is frequent skin injuries, after which the cells begin to rapidly divide, trying to restore damaged tissues. Such a struggle of the organism can result in a loss of control over the division process, leading to the formation of a tumor. Of course, not all skin injuries lead to skin cancer. The so-called risk group includes light-skinned people with an abundance of moles, who have been exposed to sun exposure for a long time for various reasons. In some people, benign tumors can form due to a hereditary predisposition or after X-ray radiation.
Methods for treating neoplasms on the face
One of the modern effective methods for eliminating new growths on the face is their removal with a laser. Complete sterility of the procedure and the absence of bleeding is achieved due to the non-contact of the laser beam. Such an intervention is absolutely safe in terms of purulent infection and relapse. In addition, due to the stimulating effect of the laser, the healing and regeneration processes of the skin are significantly accelerated. What else is attractive to this procedure for patients is its painlessness and lack of any preliminary preparation.
Surgical removal of neoplasms is resorted to in the case of their malignant nature, for example, with melanoma. The size of the affected area can vary from 1 to 3 cm. In addition to removing the neoplasm itself, the patient is additionally subjected to a biopsy of the lymph nodes. If metastases are found in them, the lymph nodes are also excised.
If the malignant tumor has affected the central part of the face, surgical treatment can be supplemented with radiotherapy. So, in melanoma, this technique is used as an auxiliary, and its purpose is to remove changes in the lymph nodes and prevent the penetration of metastases into the nervous system.
Another treatment option for skin cancer is the Mohs method, which uses a microscope during surgery. With its help, the surgeon gets the opportunity to examine the area to be removed and make sure that all abnormal cells are completely eliminated.
Chemotherapy and systemic chemotherapy are not widely used in the treatment of skin lesions on the face. When local treatment of the altered areas with ointments, the chemicals in their composition destroy cancer cells. However, the risk of superficial exposure to drugs and a rapid relapse of the disease with such treatment is always present.