The constitution of a person is primarily determined by the constitution. In addition, it depends on body weight and height. The constitution is an innate feature of the structure of the body, it is something that is genetically laid down and is transmitted from parents to children. It is impossible to change it.
It is customary to distinguish between people with asthenic (asthenics), normosthenic (normostenics), hypersthenic (hypersthenics) body type (classification of Professor V.M. Chernorutsky). It is very important to know your own constitutional type, because each type of constitution predisposes to certain diseases.
People with an asthenic body type are called asthenics. They are usually of thin build, tall or medium height. Asthenics have a narrow elongated body, a narrow and elongated chest. The abdomen, in comparison with the chest, is small, and the diaphragm is located quite low. If you measure the angle between the costal arches in the sternum (epigastric angle) in such a person, it will be acute (less than 90 degrees). The heart of people with an asthenic constitution is relatively small, almost vertical. The lungs are slightly elongated and the diaphragm is low. The legs and arms, in comparison with the body, are long and thin, the muscles are poorly developed.
People with an asthenic body type are not prone to gaining excess weight, often have a low or normal body mass index. However, asthenics more often than others suffer from diseases of the stomach with reduced secretion and intestines. Blood pressure in such people, as a rule, is less than normal, and the content of hemoglobin and erythrocytes in the blood is also low. Asthenics are also prone to diseases of the bronchopulmonary system, in particular, to pulmonary tuberculosis.
People with a hypersthenic body type can also be easily recognized. They give the impression of overweight people. Hypersthenics are more often of small or medium height. Their body is relatively long, in comparison with it, the legs and arms seem to be slightly shortened. The rib cage is wide and short, the ribs are almost horizontal. The angle formed by the costal arches in the region of the sternum is obtuse (more than 90 degrees). The belly is larger than the breast and is usually of considerable size. The diaphragm is high. All internal organs in hypersthenics are relatively large (larger than in asthenics). The heart is located almost horizontally or semi-horizontally.
People with a hypersthenic physique are prone to obesity and high blood pressure. Their body mass index is normal or high. Hypersthenics are characterized by an increased content of red blood cells and hemoglobin in the blood, as well as high cholesterol levels. Quite often, people of this body type have hypothyroidism (decreased thyroid function). Hypersthenics often suffer from diseases of the gastrointestinal tract with increased secretion.
Holders of the normosthenic type of constitution are distinguished by the proportionality of the physique. Normostenics occupy an intermediate position between asthenics and hypersthenics. The angle between the costal arches is 90 degrees. The sizes of the body and limbs are approximately the same. The heart is located semi-horizontally. Body mass index is usually normal. Normostenics do not have a clear predisposition to certain diseases.