A significant class of chemicals is represented by organic substances that contain carbon. These substances are vital for the human body, because they are involved in the synthesis process.
Many people have heard that human cells contain organic matter such as proteins, fats and carbohydrates. But few have focused on substances such as monosaccharides, which are the main group of carbohydrates.
Basically, monosaccharides are the simplest form of sugar that has a colorless base and can dissolve in water. But it should be noted that not all monosaccharides have a sweet taste. There is a certain structured classification in which monosaccharides are divided into the following types:
- hexoses, - pentoses, - trioses, - tetroses.
A characteristic feature of monosaccharides is their ability to adapt and exist both in an open form and in a cyclic form, while still creating derivatives from any form.
For the human body, the most important monosaccharides are: glucose, fructose, galactose.
Glucose is involved in all biological processes in the body, it is perfectly absorbed in the blood and is an easily assimilated source of energy for humans.
Glucose is readily oxidized and converted to glycogen. In turn, glycogen is animal starch, it carries the bulk of carbohydrates. But it is worth noting that glucose requires a substance called insulin for its complete assimilation. Insulin is called protein hormones, which are produced by special beta cells located in the pancreas.
A monosaccharide such as fructose is no less important for the body. Fructose is more abundant than glucose, and it also tends to oxidize.
Fructose for its assimilation does not require insulin and is rather slowly absorbed in the intestine.
The monosaccharide galactose is included in the main composition of lactose, that is, milk sugar. Being in the liver, it turns into glucose and is an indispensable participant in the construction of hemicellulose.
The main food carriers that bring fructose and glucose are all fruits, as well as honey, sweet vegetables and fruits. In order for the processes in the cell to occur quickly and efficiently, it is necessary to know which fruits contain monosaccharides, which are so important for the human body. Most often, seeds, for example, apricot or plum, contain glucose, but fruits that have a seed are dominated by fructose.