General Overview Of The Human Body: Systems, Structure

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General Overview Of The Human Body: Systems, Structure
General Overview Of The Human Body: Systems, Structure

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General overview of the human body: systems, structure
General overview of the human body: systems, structure

The human body is a single organism, where the action of all organs and systems is closely interconnected. The basic unit is the cage. By the time of reaching adulthood, the human body consists of an average of three billion cells. All organs are formed from them, organs are combined into systems, each of which plays an important role in life. Human body systems:

  • The cardiovascular system. It includes capillaries, arteries, veins, heart. The main function of the system is to pump blood, delivering it to all organs. The left side of the heart is a "pump" for the whole organism, the right side of the heart muscle delivers blood to the lungs in order to enrich it with oxygen. The heart has three layers (myocardium, epicardium, endocardium). Each of them has a different density and functionality.
  • The digestive system satisfies the need for food and converts nutrients into necessary energy. Consists of the digestive tract: mouth, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, ends with the rectum.
  • Skin covering. The vital activity of the human body is constantly associated with various risks. The skin protects the body from environmental influences, external irritants. The skin system consists of the skin (including the sebaceous and sweat glands), hair, nails, and the micro-muscles that hold the hair in place.
  • The lymphatic system. The main function is to extract and transport lymph throughout the body.
  • The musculoskeletal system. It consists of a human skeleton, in which all bones are aligned with each other by joints, supported by muscles attached to the skeleton by tendons. The study of the human body often begins with the study of the structure of the skeleton. In total, the skeleton consists of 206 bones. Nervous system.
  • The nervous system in the body is responsible for information about the body and the environment. Divided into peripheral and central.
  • The reproductive system. The most complex system of the body, completely different from the female from the male. Responsible for sexual function and, in general, for the continuation of the human race.

Human structure. Head

Each human organ is individual, located in a specific place and performs its function. When making a general overview of the human body, it is important to understand where which organ is located. This will help avoid any injury, as well as determine which specialist to contact for a particular disease.

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The brain, perhaps, remains the most mysterious and undisclosed element of the body. All parts of the body are subject to this center. The brain is located in the cranium, protected by strong bones of the skull. Nerves run from the brain throughout the body, along which impulse signals are sent to a particular action. Thanks to the commands of the brain, we see, hear, feel, move, generally live and exist.

Rib cage

Everyone should know how a person is arranged, where the main organs are located. Consider the chest. On the front, cervical side, under the Adam's apple, there is a small thyroid gland, which can be called the "battery" of our body. She is responsible for the production of basic hormones that ensure all the well-coordinated work of the organs of our body. With age, the thyroid gland can go down and even end up in the chest cavity. The diaphragm separates the chest cavity from the abdominal cavity. The heart is displaced to the left, located between the right and left lungs, behind the sternum. The lungs take up most of the chest space. They pass from the heart to the ribs, have a domed shape, and are located at the back towards the spine. The bases of the lungs rest against the muscular diaphragm. Protected by ribs.

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Abdominal cavity

The main reservoir for taking and storing food is the stomach.It is located under the diaphragm, on the left side of the peritoneum. Behind, just below the stomach, is the pancreas. It breaks down fats, carbohydrates, proteins and produces glucagon and insulin - the most important hormones. On the right, under the diaphragm, is the liver. The well-coordinated work of the human body largely depends on this organ. The liver is our main filter. In the lower part of the liver, in a depression, is the gallbladder, which plays an important role in the processing of food. In the left part of the hypochondrium lies the spleen, it protects our body from various infections, as well as from blood loss.

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Below the stomach, the peritoneal space is occupied by the small intestine, a long tangled tube. The beginning of the large intestine (cecum) is on the right side. Then the large intestine flows around the peritoneum from above and descends down the left side. The cecum is called the appendix. The large intestine turns into a straight line, ends with an anus - an exit through which feces are removed.

Genitourinary organs

Considering the systems of the human body, you understand that each of them is important and necessary in its own way. The kidneys belong to the paired organs of the genitourinary system. The left kidney is located slightly higher due to the increased size of the liver on the right. At the top of each kidney are the adrenal glands. Their role is huge, they release more than thirty hormones directly into the bloodstream. Below, in the small pelvis, is the bladder. In men, behind it are seminal vesicles, intestines. In women - the vagina, below - the pelvic floor muscles. Two tiny glands - the ovaries lie in the pelvic cavity, on opposite sides of the uterus, attached to it by ligaments. In men, the testes (testicles) are located in the scrotum, which is brought out. Below the bladder is the prostate gland.

Cell

Conducting a general overview of the human body, we put the cell first. It is the smallest functional and structural unit. In the human body there are more than two hundred types of cells, each of them has its own composition, functionality, structure. If we consider the general plan of the building, it is the same. The membrane, cytoplasm and nucleus are the main components of any cell. The envelope is formed by the glycocalyx and the plasmalemma. In the cytoplasm, an organoid and a hyaloplasm are distinguished. The cell membrane provides receptor function, selective permeability, transmission of electrical and chemical signals, separates the intercellular substance from the protoplast.

The main properties of a cell in life are irritability, metabolism, reproduction, aging, and death. Metabolism takes place continuously. Various substances constantly enter the cell, taking part in energy and plastic metabolism, used components are removed, heat energy is released. The cell is able to respond to various internal and external stimuli. The form of the response is excitability, it is associated with the charge of the cell membrane. Each cell has its own life cycle. Every day in the human body, about 1-2% of cells die as a result of aging and new ones are born, this process is continuous.

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Fabrics

Tissue is a collection of cells, intercellular substance, which have a common structure, function, origin. There are four types of tissues in the human body:

  • Epithelial tissue. It is based on ectodermal origin, quickly regenerates, has a minimum of intercellular substance, no vessels, is located on the basement membrane. There are several types of epithelium: single-layer - flat, cylindrical, cubic, ciliated epithelium, multilayer - keratinizing, non-keratinizing, glandular epithelium.
  • Connective tissue. Comes from the mesoderm. The shape of the cells is diverse, the intercellular substance is developed. Distinguish fibrous - loose tissue, dense tissue, cartilage, bone, fat, lymph, blood. Hematopoietic tissues are also connective tissues.
  • Muscle.Has properties to contract and be excited. There are skeletal striated, cardiac striated, smooth.
  • Nerve tissue. The most important properties are excitability and conductivity. Ectodermal tissue is represented by neuroglia and neurons.

As you can see, the human body is an integral dynamic system with a special structure.

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