Pancreatitis is inflammation of the pancreas. The enzymes involved in the breakdown of nutrients are produced in this gland in an inactive form and are activated in the duodenum. If their outflow is disrupted for some reason, enzymes are activated in the pancreas itself and begin to destroy it.
Inflammation occurs, in which the tissue of the gland is gradually replaced by adipose or scar tissue. The most dangerous complications of pancreatitis are pancreatic cancer and diabetes mellitus.
Causes of pancreatitis
The main causes of pancreatic inflammation are gallbladder disease and alcohol consumption. Also, pancreatitis can develop as a result of diseases of the stomach, duodenum, tumors, trauma, helminthic invasion, taking certain medications.
Acute pancreatitis, in most cases, begins after drinking excessive amounts of alcohol or as a complication of mumps. Chronic pancreatitis is a consequence of regular overeating, abuse of fatty foods, diseases of the gallbladder, autoimmune diseases. Reactive pancreatitis begins against the background of an acute illness of the digestive system.
A characteristic symptom of acute pancreatitis is severe girdle pain, usually in the left side. It can be felt as cardiac or renal and is aggravated by lying down. Taking any antispasmodics and analgesics is ineffective. An increase in pain after eating is also a differentiating sign. Digestive disorders may be disturbing - vomiting, nausea, bloating, diarrhea with oily semi-liquid feces, hiccups. Sometimes hemorrhages appear on the skin, more often in the navel, yellowness of the sclera and skin. In some cases, the body temperature rises.
All these symptoms can be with chronic and reactive pancreatitis. In the case of a chronic course of the disease, pain is much less pronounced, but its nature and tendency to increase after eating or drinking remain. Sometimes there are painless forms of pancreatitis, while digestive disorders are present. Any suspicion of pancreatitis should be verified with an exhaustive diagnosis.
Until the diagnosis is established, it is advisable not to self-medicate or take any medication. It is very important to establish the cause of pancreatitis. There are three main rules for the treatment of acute pancreatitis - cold, hunger and rest. The first three days after an acute attack requires a complete refusal to eat. Only unlimited water is allowed. After starvation, diet number 5 is prescribed. To relieve the swelling, a heating pad with ice is placed on the pancreas area. Bed rest is recommended to reduce the intensity of blood flow. Narcotic analgesics are used to relieve pain. Saline solutions, plasma infusion, albumin are administered intravenously.
In the future, with exacerbations, drugs of metabolic action, lipotropic drugs are prescribed. Antibiotics are indicated for severe inflammation or abscess formation of the pancreas. In case of secretory insufficiency of the gland, replacement enzyme preparations, multivitamins are used. After the removal of acute events, for the prevention of exacerbation, treatment in sanatoriums of the gastroenterological profile is recommended. Patients with a chronic course are not shown to work with the impossibility of adhering to a clear diet.
Patients with chronic pancreatitis need a complete rejection of alcohol, limitation of marinades, canned foods, fatty and fried foods, strong broths. Low-fat varieties of meat, poultry and fish, sour cream, cottage cheese, slimy porridge on water, jelly and compotes, rosehip decoction are recommended.All foods must be baked, boiled, or steamed.
With the rapid development of the disease, severe chronic pain forms or the development of an abscess, surgical treatment of pancreatitis is performed.