What Is Moderate External Hydrocephalus

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What Is Moderate External Hydrocephalus
What Is Moderate External Hydrocephalus

Video: What Is Moderate External Hydrocephalus

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Video: Hydrocephalus - Causes, Types, Signs and Symptoms, Pathophysiology, Diagnosis and Treatment 2023, February
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Moderate external hydrocephalus can be both a separate disease and a symptom of other diseases (strokes, brain trauma, tumors, infections). In most cases, hydrocephalus develops against the background of atherosclerosis, hypertension, and dysfunctions of the musculoskeletal system.

What is moderate external hydrocephalus
What is moderate external hydrocephalus

Causes and symptoms of moderate external hydrocephalus

Hydrocephalus appears due to excessive accumulation of cerebrospinal fluid in the cerebrospinal fluid cavities. This provokes an increase in intracranial pressure. As a result, the brain substance is compressed, the space between the soft and arachnoid membranes decreases, the cerebrospinal fluid is not absorbed into the venous system. Moderate external hydrocephalus develops under the influence of harmful factors in the prenatal period (congenital syphilis, congenital toxoplasmosis, generalized cytomegaly). The child's parts of the nervous system are affected, defects may develop that affect the cerebrospinal fluid and its properties. In this case, external hydrocephalus is considered congenital. It is often diagnosed in premature babies. With this disease, a fontanel appears in newborns, meningeal symptoms are observed (head tilting, nystagmus, strabismus).

Usually, hydrocephalus becomes noticeable when the growth of the head circumference accelerates, which does not correspond to age.

Acquired moderate hydrocephalus develops after inflammatory processes and traumatic brain injury. Hypotrophic hydrocephalus is caused by a malnutrition of the brain substance. In adult patients, there is a decrease in vision, hearing, and intellectual abilities. The main signs of moderately pronounced external hydrocephalus: headache, nausea and vomiting, impaired vestibular functions, constant drowsiness, double vision, involuntary urination.

Moderate external hydrocephalus: diagnosis and treatment

To diagnose moderate external hydrocephalus, the patient needs to be examined by a neurosurgeon and neuropathologist. The diagnosis of moderately severe external hydrocephalus is based on the results of magnetic resonance imaging. Treatment of moderately severe external hydrocephalus will depend on the state of the brain structures, their displacement, and the level of intracranial pressure.

For diagnostics, X-ray, ultrasound, craniography, angiography are also used.

In some cases, conservative treatment is possible: diet therapy, reducing fluid intake, physiotherapy exercises. Prescribe drugs that lower blood pressure, normalize the functions of the brain, provide its tissues with the necessary substances. However, these methods of therapy do not eliminate the cause of the disease; in this case, surgery is indicated. The most modern method of surgical treatment of moderate external hydrocephalus is endoscopic treatment. At the same time, conditions are created for the outflow of liquid through natural openings (without introducing foreign objects).

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