Melanoma

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Melanoma
Melanoma

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Melanoma develops from melanocytes. A favorite site of localization is the skin. In exceptional cases, it can affect the conjunctiva, choroidal membrane of the eyes, nasal mucosa, oral cavity, rectum or vagina.

Melanoma
Melanoma

Melanoma symptoms and risk factors

The main risk factors provoking the development of melanoma are:

  • Significant dose of UV radiation;
  • Injury to nevi;
  • Genetic predisposition;
  • The presence of pigmented xeroderma;
  • History of Dubreus melanosis.

Melanoma symptoms

Melanoma differs from the usual mole in asymmetrical halves, jagged, uneven and indistinct borders, inhomogeneous color of yellowish, brown, black, blue, red, white. Changing the shape and color of moles is a reason to contact an oncologist and undergo a medical examination.

Melanoma diagnostics

The oncologist takes into account the clinical symptoms, prescribes a thorough examination and takes material from the affected areas for a biopsy, based on the results of which a correct diagnosis can be made.

Melanoma treatment

With a localized form of melanoma, surgical removal of the affected areas and regional lymph nodes, if they have increased in size, is performed. Disseminated melanoma is treated with chemotherapy. In 40% of patients, regression of malignant neoplasms is observed. If treatment is carried out in the early stages, when metastases have not yet been detected, the survival rate of patients is 85-90%.

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