Rehabilitation is an important stage in the treatment of a person from the consequences of a stroke. Recovery can take a long period of time and it is important that all rehabilitation activities are carried out in stages. This will help not only to avoid the deterioration of the patient's condition, but also to return him to a full life.
Rehabilitation measures are aimed at accelerating the recovery of the impaired functions of the patient as a result of a stroke. The healing procedure is carried out in order to prevent the appearance of secondary complications (for example, pneumonia, thrombophlebitis, the appearance of pressure sores and the occurrence of muscular dystrophy). Rehabilitation begins in the neurological department, and then continues in a rehabilitation center or a specialized sanatorium. During the procedure, it is important that the family members of the patient take an active part in the recovery, providing the necessary assistance and psychological support. The effectiveness of rehabilitation and the prognosis of recovery is determined in accordance with the severity of the stroke.
Physiotherapy (kinesitherapy) is one of the main methods used in rehabilitation. Light exercise and gymnastics can help restore the patient's strength, range of motion, and agility in whole or in part. Within the framework of physical education, therapy with the use of electrical stimulation methods can be prescribed, aimed at improving the activity of the nervous and muscular systems.
The patient can start kinesiotherapy within a few days after the stroke. At the initial stage, passive gymnastics is prescribed, during which a specialist doctor helps the patient to carry out limb movements. The patient is then taught to get out of bed and sit down on his own. Within the framework of this therapy, a person is taught to stand still and move, first with the help of a methodologist, and after a while on his own.
The restoration of self-service skills is also carried out in stages. The patient is trained in food intake, personal hygiene. The patient learns to dress independently, use the toilet and bathroom. After returning home, the person may start doing some household chores, such as cleaning or preparing simple meals. If the dynamics of rehabilitation and full recovery are positive, the possibility of preparing the patient to return to work may also be considered.
Rehabilitation actions are aimed at reducing spasms, improving brain activity and restoring muscle strength. Therapeutic massage of muscles is performed, thermotherapy techniques are applied (for example, applications of paraffin or ozokerite are applied). Doctors prescribe muscle relaxant drugs. If the patient has severe pain, they can use electrical, magnetic and laser therapy, as well as acupuncture. In some cases, anabolic hormones may be prescribed at the discretion of the physician.
For the rehabilitation of the speech apparatus, classes are conducted with a speech therapist or neuropsychologist. Lessons may include exercises to restore writing skills and a full understanding of the speech of others. Also, procedures are carried out to restore the psychological adaptation of the patient in the family, circle of friends and work collective. The restoration of the ability to socialize is achieved by providing psychological support and frequent verbal contact with close family members.