Epilepsy: Causes And Treatment

Epilepsy: Causes And Treatment
Epilepsy: Causes And Treatment

Video: Epilepsy: Causes And Treatment

Video: Epilepsy: Types of seizures, Symptoms, Pathophysiology, Causes and Treatments, Animation. 2022, December
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Epilepsy is a chronic neurological disease that is manifested by the occurrence of seizures. Nerve pathological impulses are sent from damaged cells, which can lead to damage to nearby parts of the brain

Epilepsy
Epilepsy

The prevalence of epilepsy is 20 cases per 1000 people. Depending on the causes of its occurrence, it is divided into symptomatic, which occurs as a result of brain lesions, and idiopathic, the causes of which are unknown. Epilepsy in most cases is idiopathic.

The mechanism of this disease is still unknown. The main causes of symptomatic epilepsy are:

• violations in the process of intrauterine development;

• toxic damage to the liver, kidneys, uremia, hypo and hyperglycemia;

• poisoning with lead, mercury, carbon dioxide, alcohol;

• traumatic brain injury;

• vascular disorders: intracerebral circulation, embolism, thrombosis;

• syphilitic and tuberculous brain damage;

• brain abscesses, encephalitis, meningitis;

• brain tumors localized in the frontal and temporal lobes.

From damaged cells, pathological nerve impulses are sent, which can lead to damage to nearby parts of the brain. Thus, new epileptic foci are formed. There are three options for the propagation of a nerve impulse:

- is extinguished in the zone of its origin;

- passes through the nervous system as a whole;

- will spread to nearby areas of the brain.

Symptoms of the disease

As a rule, epilepsy begins in early childhood and adolescence, and then gradually progresses. In the case of a mild form, attacks are rare and have the same character. In the case of a severe form, attacks occur 4-10 times daily and they have a different character. In addition, patients experience a personality change: softness and flattering alternate with pettiness and viciousness. In many cases, mental retardation is observed.

Signs of the disease:

• convulsive seizure;

• febrile seizures;

• small convulsive seizure;

• trance;

• epileptic twilight.

Diagnosis of the disease

Electroencephalography is considered the main method for diagnosing epilepsy, thanks to which the electrical potentials of the brain are recorded. But only in half of the patients changes are found on it, which have the form of waves and peaks of pathological brain activity. In addition, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging are used for diagnostics.

Treatment of the disease

Treatment for epilepsy is carried out either in a psychiatric hospital or in a neurological unit, in some cases by coercion. Medication should be started as soon as possible and continued uninterrupted. Treatment includes the following activities:

- various combinations of anticonvulsants (phenytoin, carbamazepine, phenobarbital, ethosuximide);

- for prolonged attacks, anesthesia is used with a mixture of oxygen and nitrous oxide;

- exclusion of factors provoking seizures (negative emotions, alcohol, etc.);

- if it is possible to accurately identify the epilepsy focus in the brain, then surgical removal of this area is performed;

- a ketogenic diet that is high in fat and low in carbohydrates, which reduces the frequency of seizures in children;

- reflex gymnastics (Voight method);

- osteopathic therapy;

- herbal medicine.

Disease prevention

Patients with epileptic seizures are shown a plant-milk diet, physical dosed exercises, compliance with a rest and work regimen. You should avoid overheating, hypothermia and negative emotions, do not drink strong tea and coffee, alcohol.With timely treatment started, with the right drugs, a calm atmosphere in the family and at work, compliance with the regimen lead to the stabilization of the disease.

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