Laparoscopy is a method of surgical intervention into internal organs through small holes. This procedure is performed using a telescopic tube with a video camera and a special lens system.
Laparoscopy is performed under general anesthesia, under the control of blood pressure and cardiac activity. Depending on the time of the procedure, this procedure can be performed in a planned, emergency manner, before the operation, during its implementation, in the early and late postoperative period.
By the type of intervention, laparoscopy is divided into diagnostic, therapeutic and control procedures. Therapeutic laparoscopy, in turn, can be operative or conservative.
Conservative laparoscopy is performed when there is a need for non-invasive methods of treating internal organs under visual control: injecting internal tissues, administering drugs.
With operative laparoscopy, a full-fledged surgical intervention is performed with a violation of the integrity of tissues, organs and vessels. The use of this method for surgical operations has a beneficial effect on the course of the disease, the patient's condition and the speed of his recovery.
Control laparoscopy is performed according to strict indications, when it becomes necessary to control the dynamics of restoration of internal organs after surgery.
Diagnostic laparoscopy is necessary in cases where the doctor doubts the results obtained using clinical diagnostic methods. In such situations, to clarify the diagnosis, collect the necessary material for research, he needs this procedure.
The indications for diagnostic laparoscopy are suspicion of an ectopic pregnancy, identification of the nature of the malformation of internal organs, suspicion of a malignant neoplasm, persistent pain syndrome of an unclear nature, the impossibility of excluding acute surgical pathology.
At the same time, there are a number of contraindications for its implementation, which include cardiopulmonary insufficiency, acute infectious diseases, hemorrhagic diathesis, decompensated form of diabetes mellitus, extensive adhesions in the abdominal cavity, renal and hepatic insufficiency.