In vitro fertilization is prescribed for infertility caused by various factors. To queue up for the IVF procedure, you need to have the appropriate indications, as well as to get acquainted with the medical requirements put forward to the patient in advance.
Indications for in vitro fertilization in female infertility are the pathology of the fallopian tubes, pathology of the endocrine system, as well as polycystic ovary disease and endometriosis. To determine the nature of the pathology, hystersalpingography is performed before the appointment of IVF, which allows to identify the causes of dysfunction of the fallopian tubes. These factors include pelvic inflammatory disease, various abdominal surgeries, ectopic pregnancy, or surgical tubal ligation.
In the presence of pathologies of the endocrine system in severe stages, IVF is not performed without the permission of the therapist and endocrinologist. In the future, the reproductive physician will proceed from their recommendations when prescribing treatment that accompanies IVF. Endocrine pathologies include diseases of the thyroid gland, pituitary gland and adrenal glands, as well as diabetes mellitus. In case of polycystic ovaries, IVF referral is given only after treatment, which is the removal of a part of the diseased organ, cauterization of the cysts with an electric current, and the intake of follicle-stimulating hormones or clomiphene. Endometriosis is an indication for IVF in case of ineffectiveness of conservative or surgical treatment.
If a man cannot have children in a couple, his infertility caused by certain factors is also an indication for IVF. The most common causes of male infertility are pathologies of the spermatic cord caused by varicose veins, as well as azoospermia - an almost complete absence of sperm. This pathology develops due to blockade of the vas deferens or their absence, as well as due to severe diseases of the testicles.
When sperm is produced and it is impossible to obtain it naturally, the doctor performs a special puncture, which is performed under anesthesia. In this way, only one active sperm is sufficient for in vitro fertilization of an egg. If this procedure is not possible due to azoospermia, reproductive specialists recommend that the couple resort to using donor sperm.