Anesthesia, especially general anesthesia, affects all organs and systems of the body. The most affected are the brain, heart, liver and kidneys. At the same time, the liver, as the most "silent" organ, is the last to let know about its problems.
How does anesthesia affect the liver?
The most dangerous anesthesia is general multicomponent anesthesia with mechanical ventilation (artificial lung ventilation). It is dangerous both in the technique of conducting and in time, and in complications. Any anesthesia with the patient's prone position is dangerous. Moreover, they have a strong effect not only on the liver, but also on the heart. But it so happens that the operation can only be carried out in this way. The safest types of anesthesia are epidural and intravenous anesthesia with ketamine.
General anesthesia is dangerous by a drop in hepatic blood flow, which can lead to liver hypoxia and damage to hepatocytes. Various drugs used for anesthesia (for example, barbiturates) can also cause destruction of hepatocytes. Therefore, liver cells almost inevitably deteriorate with general anesthesia. Almost from any anesthesia, the glycogen content in the liver is greatly reduced, which also greatly harms the hepatocytes. When anesthetized with some drugs, moderate hyperglycemia develops, which can lead to the development of acidosis. Under anesthesia with chloroform drugs, minor foci of liver necrosis may occur.
Hepatocytes are the most important cells in the liver, accounting for 60% to 80% of its total mass.
True, anesthesia is only one of many factors leading to liver dysfunction. Other factors include sepsis, trauma, blood transfusions, infections affecting the liver, intravenous nutrition, and the use of hepatotoxic drugs. Also, with general anesthesia, hypercapnia (high blood pressure and carbon dioxide content in arterial blood) can occur. If the patient has previously suffered any liver diseases, the likelihood of its disturbance during anesthesia increases markedly. In addition, the destruction of hepatocytes is increased in pregnant women during anesthesia. This is due to the increased consumption of oxygen per unit of body weight. Most of all, the liver suffers in the post-anesthetic state, and not during the anesthesia itself. At the same time, deviations in the state of the liver cannot affect the patient's weight.
Glycogen is the main storage carbohydrate in living things.
How to protect the liver from the effects of anesthesia
First of all, it is necessary to warn the anesthesiologist about previous liver diseases. After that, the anesthesiologist will definitely select the most gentle anesthetic drugs and introduce hepatoprotectors during the operation and in the postoperative period to protect the liver.
After the operation, the patient can be tested against it, after which he will be prescribed corrective treatment. The liver responds very well to treatment, and if there were no problems with this organ before the anesthesia, then most likely, therapeutic measures will not be needed. In any case, when choosing any medicines, including vitamins, you should consult your doctor.