Bronchitis is an inflammatory disease of the bronchi, which is accompanied by a severe cough. It is impossible to leave a respiratory infection untreated, since it threatens with serious complications up to pneumonia. Complex therapy of bronchitis usually involves the use of antibiotics, which are individually selected by the therapist.
How to recognize bronchitis
Among the main signs of bronchitis is a cough, which remains dry for the first 2-3 days, and is later moistened. Usually the patient feels weak, his chest area hurts, he has a fever. Vomiting and diarrhea may occur.
The symptom checklist helps therapists determine which type of bronchitis a patient has been admitted to. Usually, a dry cough indicates the viral nature of the disease, and a cough with thick yellow-green discharge indicates a bacterial infection.
Bronchitis is called acute if:
- the body temperature of the sick person rises to 39 ° C;
- cough is accompanied by a runny nose, tracheitis;
- the patient is sweating;
- lethargic, gets tired quickly;
- wheezing is heard when breathing;
- shortness of breath is possible;
- in severe cases, it hurts behind the breastbone.
Untreated or untreated bronchitis often develops into a chronic form, while a wet cough may not be accompanied by a high body temperature. The breathing of a chronic patient gets lost during physical exertion, and the disease itself either weakens or flares up again.
Why it is important to know the cause of bronchitis
Before taking antibiotics for bronchitis, you need to see a doctor and clarify the cause of the disease. It is better to immediately make an appointment with an experienced pulmonologist, a doctor who specializes in pathologies of the respiratory system. This will help to establish a diagnosis and start treatment on time, thereby avoiding complications.
The doctor will inquire in detail about the symptoms, listen to the lungs and, if necessary, prescribe laboratory and instrumental studies. In particular, he will send for blood tests and X-rays.
Scientists have shown that in 85-95% of cases, acute bronchitis is caused by viruses, which are useless to treat with antibiotics. Less commonly, bacteria become the cause, and very rarely (with very weak immunity, including HIV), fungi. Usually, bacterial contamination becomes secondary.
Infection can be identified by a large amount of greenish discharge (the so-called "purulent bronchitis"). There are reliable ways to identify the causative agent of the respiratory system disease.
The viral nature of the inflammation of the bronchi will be determined by a blood test for antibodies. Serology will show not only what kind of infection has affected the organs, but also how long the disease lasts and how the healing process proceeds.
Bacterial contamination will detect a culture of phlegm that is collected during coughing. The study of the secret will help determine the composition of the microflora, diagnose the development of pneumonia and tuberculosis in time.
There are non-infectious causes of bronchitis. Inflammation of the bronchi, in particular, can be provoked by:
- chemicals and dust in the air;
- exposure to nicotine.
The disease is more severe with pathologies of the respiratory tract, sinusitis, infection in the tonsils and serious immunity disorders.
Basic antibiotics for bronchitis
Taking antibiotics without specialist supervision can seriously damage the body's defenses. Improper use of drugs can form the ability of pathogenic microbes to resist antibacterial agents.
If examination of the patient and medical research prove the presence of purulent bronchitis, the therapist may prescribe the following medications.
- Penicillin drugs. They violate the integrity of pathogenic cells, causing microbes to die. Among the most popular drugs are Augmentin, Amoxicillin, Ekoklav, Amoxiclav, Flemoxin Solutab.These drugs are considered first-line antibiotics.
- Second-line antibiotics are called macrolides. They are usually prescribed for protracted bronchitis and relapses, atypical forms of the disease and in cases where aminopenicillins cannot cope with mutated bacteria. Among macrolides - Sumamed, Erythromycin, Macropen. Antibiotics prevent pathogens from multiplying, while accumulating in tissues. You can limit yourself to short courses of medication.
- Fluoroquinolones are usually only prescribed for adults with bronchitis. Such drugs as "Levofloxacin", "Pefloxacin", "Ofloxacin" destroy the DNA of bacteria, however, along the way, cause severe dysbiosis. Nevertheless, drugs become a salvation when a patient with bronchitis cannot tolerate antibiotics of the first and second lines, or the latter do not help to cope with the disease.
- Reserve antibiotics - cephalosporins. The drugs will help with prolonged, complicated inflammation of the respiratory system, with obstruction. Usually, injections are prescribed with drugs such as Ceftriaxone, Cephalexin, Cefazolin.
What kind of antibacterial medication to take for bronchitis can only be decided by a therapist. He will write a prescription and prescribe an individual treatment course for the patient.
A systematic approach to the treatment of bronchitis
To successfully combat bronchitis in adults, antibacterial drugs are used only as part of a comprehensive therapeutic course. To improve the respiratory system, it is not enough to defeat the pathogens of the disease and stop the inflammatory process in the bronchi.
It is necessary to cleanse the organs of pathogenic secretions, dead microbes. In addition, you need to help the body cope with intoxication and dysbiosis, restore protective mechanisms.
Treatment of bronchitis in adults can proceed as follows.
When the first signs of acute bronchitis appear, you should start taking antiviral drugs and immunomodulators prescribed by your doctor.
After detecting an infection of a bacterial nature, the patient takes antibiotics. After the therapeutic course, it is required to restore the intestinal microflora, for which the patient is recommended drugs that will help the body remove putrefaction products from the gastrointestinal tract and populate the intestines with beneficial bacteria.
Expectorants are needed to remove phlegm from the respiratory tract. Medicines can be given in different dosage forms, including inhalation.
A variety of physiotherapy procedures help to relieve tissue swelling, stop the inflammatory process, improve blood circulation in the respiratory organs and strengthen the immune system. Among them:
- paraffin applications;
- therapeutic mud;
Physiotherapy procedures help a patient with chronic bronchitis to achieve a stable remission.
Bronchitis and natural antibiotics
Medicines of natural origin have long been used in the treatment of purulent bronchitis, since they have proven antibacterial efficacy. Here are just a few of the healing gifts of nature:
- wild rosemary;
- lemon, etc.
In herbal medicine, tinctures, decoctions, fees for the treatment of cough with bronchitis are used. It has been proven that natural bee honey in combination with medicinal antibiotics of plant origin increases the activity of the drug many times over.
In folk medicine, a variety of remedies for bronchitis are used. For example, cabbage leaves are blanched in boiling water, smeared with honey and applied to the back and chest, bypassing the heart area. They keep it all night. With a dry cough, a patient with bronchitis can take a tablespoon of a mixture of garlic juice (a teaspoon), lemon juice (100 grams) and honey (100 grams) 3 times a day.
But no matter how useful natural antibiotics are, it is important to understand: they should be used after consultation with your doctor as an adjunct and to strengthen the immune system.