Enterobiasis - human infection with pinworms - is one of the most common helminthiases. It is more common in children of school and preschool age.
Pinworm eggs are elongated, have a smooth double-contour light shell, in the center of which are the larvae. Pinworms (usually up to several thousand specimens) parzitize in the upper part of the large intestine, the appendix and in the lower part of the small intestine. Here they stick to the mucous membrane, sometimes they penetrate deep enough into the Lieberkun's glands.
It is known that the uterus of a fertilized pinworm contains about 1200 eggs. After fertilization of females, males die, and females move to the lower parts of the large intestine - into the rectum and, coming out of the latter, lay a large number of eggs in the folds around the skin of the anus, and die themselves. When scratching the perineum around the anus, the eggs fall on the fingers, under the nails, from where they can enter food and into the mouth and cause re-infection.
Infection also occurs through fecal matter containing pinworm eggs. The eggs laid in the perinatal area are not fully mature. They ripen within 6-7 hours at a temperature of 36-37 degrees Celsius. Ripening does not occur below 22 degrees, however, mature eggs at room temperature remain viable for a month. They can be found in the dust of floors, walls, window sills, cabinets, classrooms.
When penetrating into the thickness of the intestinal mucosa, pinworms can promote the introduction of the intestinal bacterial flora into the tissues of the body with the development of inflammatory changes in them, as well as catarrhal and purulent appendicitis. Pinworms can cause cracks in the anal region due to scratching, suppuration of these cracks. Sometimes there are rashes, eczema caused by irritation. prolonged and painful itching in the perineum can lead to the fact that patients, especially children, become nervous, capricious, they lose their appetite, sleep is disturbed, and bedwetting appears. The excruciating itching of the perineum in women is accompanied by psychasthenia, decreased ability to work. In girls, pinworm irritation of the genitals leads to an early manifestation of sexual desire.
The diagnosis of enterobiasis is established on the basis of complaints of patients, indications of pinworms crawling out and when parasites or their eggs are found in the feces or in the anus. Pinworm eggs can also be found in the subungual spaces.
For prophylaxis, it is necessary to scrupulously handle the hands after using the toilet, in the morning and before eating. Damp cleaning of the premises should be carried out periodically to avoid scattering eggs and inhaling them with dust.