In 2013, a voluntary program of medical examination of the population was introduced at the state level. Now anyone who closely monitors their health can do it for free.
Such medical examinations were very popular in Soviet times, only they were then called preventive examinations. The Ministry of Health of Russia issued an order according to which any citizen of Russia has the right to a free examination by a therapist and narrow specialists that he needs.
Tasks of prophylactic medical examination
With the help of dispensary observation, it is possible to identify the early stage of severe chronic diseases or their development risks. The examination is carried out in a medical institution at the place of registration.
In 2019, clinical examination is carried out in any city in Russia. This procedure is designed to solve certain problems: - Diagnosis of the early stages of diseases. - Reducing the progression of the disease and its transition to the chronic stage. - Control of the spread of infectious diseases in the region where the medical institution is located. - Control of the spread of dangerous diseases - Identification of the causes of diseases. - Informing citizens about the prevention and diagnosis of diseases.
Clinical examination is carried out with the consent of the citizen, i.e. is voluntary. Young adult adults may refuse it completely or not participate in any medical examinations. However, medical professionals advise not to neglect this opportunity.
Regular medical examination helps to identify: - Cancer in the early stages. - Dangerous cardiovascular diseases. - Early stage of diabetes mellitus. - Erased forms of cerebrovascular accident (CVA). - Diseases of the digestive system.
Who is supposed to undergo medical examination
Since 2019, persons over the age of 18 are eligible for free medical examination. Starting from this age, it is possible to identify signs leading to dangerous diseases: - High blood pressure. - Elevated blood glucose levels. - Increased blood cholesterol.
Persons born in 1920 to 1988 are eligible for free medical examination. From 18 to 39 years old, you can do this every three years. From the age of forty, you have the right to an annual medical examination, and you can do this without waiting for your birthday. It is the year of this anniversary that is important. The research includes the identification of markers for cancer. If necessary, it will be held starting from the age of 18.
Regardless of age, a special category of citizens can take advantage of the prophylactic medical examination: - Participants of the Great Patriotic War. - Citizens who participated in hostilities. - Residents of besieged Leningrad, who received the corresponding distinction. - Persons injured at work. - People with disabilities of common diseases. - Prisoners of the Great Patriotic War camps and the GULAG camps.
Clinical examination of children begins at birth. Up to a month, the pediatrician of the polyclinic at the place of registration visits the child at home. Then every week, at the request of the parents, visits are made to the clinic. Vaccinations, visits to specialists and tests are prescribed with the established frequency. One month after birth, an ultrasound examination of the abdominal organs is scheduled. At six months it is necessary to visit an ophthalmologist and a cardiologist.
Before going to kindergarten or school, you need to consult a psychologist to test your child for stress resistance. Schoolchildren and kindergarten students must undergo medical examination annually.
All those who wish to undergo the examination are a passport and a compulsory medical insurance policy. The examination rooms are open until the evening, and in some cities (for example, in Moscow) even on weekends.If you are unable to visit the clinic after work, you have the right to take a day off, which the employer must pay.
What is prophylactic medical examination
Clinical examination is a free examination of specialists, taking tests and instrumental research methods. All this can be done even if the patient is not worried about anything. You should be accepted, examined, given a referral for tests and, if necessary, sent for consultation to narrow specialists.
You have the right to do a colonoscopy, mammography, ECG, blood, urine, etc. for free. Only all this will not be at your request, but as prescribed by a doctor.
There are examinations characterized by a certain frequency: - Registration of an ECG annually from 35 years old. This is necessary for early diagnosis of cardiovascular disease. vascular diseases. - An analysis for occult blood in the feces is done every two years from the age of forty. Thus, hidden gastrointestinal bleeding can be detected. - A blood test for PSA is taken every five years by men starting at the age of forty-five. This test helps to identify the early stage of prostate cancer. - Mammography is done every 2 years for women over forty. This test is necessary to detect breast cancer. - With the same frequency, a woman should be examined by a gynecologist from the age of fifty. - From the age of forty, all citizens are required to measure intraocular pressure annually to detect glaucoma. - Every year it is necessary to do fluorography of the lungs
Stages of medical examination
1. Screening Early detection of diseases. At this stage, they visit a therapist who prescribes tests and some types of research. If necessary, the patient will be referred to specialized specialists.
2. Clarification of the diagnosis At the first stage, deviations were identified and a preliminary diagnosis was made, which must either be confirmed or refuted. For this, additional research methods are carried out. These include: - Ultrasound diagnostics of brachycephalic vessels for patency (from 55 to 70 years old). - Consultation with a surgeon and urologist for men if the PSA analysis reveals a deviation from the norm. - Examination by a proctologist, colonoscopy or sigmoidoscopy if intestinal oncology is suspected. - Prescribing spirometry to smokers and patients with chronic diseases of the bronchopulmonary system.
3. Prescribing treatment
Algorithm for passing the prophylactic medical examination
- Find out the schedule of the prophylactic medical examination. - Choose a day for medical examination. - Prepare the necessary documents (for adults - passport, compulsory medical insurance policy, SNILS) For children under 14 years old, you must be accompanied by adults, birth certificate, compulsory medical insurance policy and SNILS). - Visit a therapist by making an appointment. - Fill out the form and voluntary consent to medical research. - Examination by a therapist and preliminary conclusion about your state of health. - Appointment by the therapist of analyzes and consultations of narrow specialists. - Repeated visit to the local therapist, who will explain the research results to you. - Determination of the health group.
As a result of examination and consultation of specialists, the patient is assigned to a certain health group. A special document is issued, which displays the conclusion of the therapist. A conversation is being held with the appointment of treatment.
There are three health groups for adults: group 1. These people are not burdened with chronic diseases. There are no risk factors that can lead to these ailments. The test results are within the normal range. Unfortunately, there are fewer and fewer such people. Group 2. These citizens also do not have chronic diseases, but they have a significantly increased risk of their occurrence. It is they who sooner or later become patients of medical institutions. Group 3. Chronic diseases already exist, and the test results are out of the norm in many respects.
The classification of children's health groups differs from that of adults: group 1. Children are completely healthy. They have no deviations either in the mental or in the physical sphere. There is a high resistance of the body to infectious diseases. Group 2. Limited healthy children. Chronic diseases are absent, but due to reduced immunity, they often suffer from colds. Group 3. Children suffer from any one chronic disease that does not worsen. 4 group. Children have chronic diseases that go into an active phase and lead to a worsening of their condition. 5 group. Children who have been officially recognized as disabled.
According to law 353-f3, the state gives a guarantee to all working citizens who want to undergo medical examination, exemption from work for one day every three years. At the same time, wages must be preserved. For workers who are no more than five years away from retirement, this is given two days annually. The rules for pupils and students are the same as for working citizens. Before the prophylactic medical examination, it is necessary to warn the management, and then bring a certificate from the local therapist.