Myocardial Infarction: Causes, Clinical Presentation, Treatment And Prevention

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Myocardial Infarction: Causes, Clinical Presentation, Treatment And Prevention
Myocardial Infarction: Causes, Clinical Presentation, Treatment And Prevention

Video: Myocardial Infarction: Causes, Clinical Presentation, Treatment And Prevention

Video: Myocardial Infarction - Heart attack, signs, symptoms, causes, diagnosis, treatment, prevention. 2022, December
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Myocardial infarction is perhaps the most formidable disease not only of the cardiovascular system, but of the whole organism as a whole. Patients who have undergone this ailment can be assigned a disability and throughout their life they will be subject to significant restrictions.

Toy heart in hands
Toy heart in hands

Myocardial infarction is a necrosis of the heart muscle. In a simple way, it means the necrosis of a portion of the muscle tissue of an organ that provides blood supply to the entire body. From this, the whole seriousness of the patient's situation becomes extremely clear.

In the middle of the twentieth century, heart attacks were not common, but they never stopped being formidable. Currently, this pathology has become a real scourge. It began to affect young people (from 25 years old), the incidence and mortality from this disease increased.

Myocardial infarction occurs due to a significant or complete cessation of blood supply to an area of ​​the heart muscle. The reason for this is the condition of the coronary vessel feeding this area. There are two main reasons that can significantly restrict blood flow to the heart muscle.

Causes of occurrence

1. Atherosclerosis. The cause is an atherosclerotic plaque in the vessel, which can block the blood flow. It grows gradually. In turn, the plaque is caused by an increased blood cholesterol level. It “grows” for a long time from the inner side of the vessel wall, gradually blocking its lumen. The most common causes of high blood cholesterol include: - A diet high in fat. - smoking. - diabetes. - essential hypercholesterolemia. In the latter case, the reasons for the high cholesterol content in the blood are not found.

2. Thrombosis. This is an acute condition. It can occur both against the background of clean and modified vessels. When, for some reason, the inner wall of the vessels is damaged, and platelets rush there, trying to compensate for the defect.

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Further, everything can happen according to the type of "vicious circle". Despite the fact that the defect of the vascular wall has already been eliminated, platelets still continue to settle in the same place, thereby increasing the thrombus in the lumen of the vessel until it completely overlaps. The blood supply is cut off and a heart attack occurs. There is another situation when a blood clot wandering through the body gets stuck in a coronary vessel.

Clinical picture

With the classic clinical picture, it is not difficult to make a diagnosis. There will not even be a need for additional research methods.

The patient complains of burning pains behind the sternum of moderate or high intensity radiating to the back or left shoulder blade. Sometimes she can give to the left hand, causing her to be numb. In some cases, the patient can even name the exact time of the onset of pain. Perhaps the appearance of cold sweat and the patient himself notes it. During this period, his position is characteristic: the right hand is on the chest due to pain, and on the face there is a grimace of pain. The classic picture is not always the case. Sometimes chest pain is mild and lasts up to a week. Then she calms down and the patient forgets about it. If he ever registers an ECG for himself, there will already be residual effects of a heart attack (cicatricial changes).

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Treatment and prevention

Cardiac patients should remember that if they cannot cope with chest pain within an hour, they will have to call an ambulance. The doctor will register the ECG and if a heart attack is detected, the necessary therapeutic measures will be taken.

Hospitalization with myocardial infarction is mandatory and is performed in a supine position. The patient is transported to the nearest vascular center, where he will be provided with specialized care.After thrombolysis, blood flow in the coronary artery will be restored, and the ECG changes will return to normal values. The patient will spend several days in the intensive care unit.

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After that, the patient is transferred to the cardiology department, where the treatment lasts up to two weeks. If the condition allows, he is discharged under the supervision of a cardiologist of the clinic. The patient should be aware of the severity of the illness. Now he must regularly donate blood for analysis so that his attending physician is aware of his cholesterol and blood clotting parameters, and also independently monitor his blood pressure.

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