A miscarriage is the miscarriage of a pregnancy. The reasons for this phenomenon may be different, but in each case it turns out to be a serious test for a woman's health.
Causes of miscarriage
There may be several reasons for the threat of spontaneous abortion in early pregnancy, among them the following are most common:
- genetic abnormalities, when the woman's immune system detects defects in the genetic code of the fetus and expels it from the body. In this case, natural selection is triggered;
- hormonal abnormalities in a woman's body often cause spontaneous abortion;
- immunological incompatibility between the fetus and the mother: Rh-conflict, when the mother and the fetus have a different Rh factor in the blood.
- Chronic infectious diseases of the body are often the cause of early termination of pregnancy. Previous abortions affect the development of inflammation, they can also provoke the development of infertility in a woman.
- taking certain medications or herbs can provoke uterine hypertonicity and early termination of pregnancy;
- Leading an unhealthy lifestyle: smoking, drinking alcohol, poor diet, stress can cause early termination of pregnancy.
- Excessive exercise, abdominal trauma or a fall can also cause miscarriage.
Types of spontaneous abortions and signs of incipient miscarriage
The main symptom is the appearance of pain in the lower abdomen and lower back. In addition, the appearance of bloody discharge from the genital tract is possible. The doctor on an ultrasound scan can determine the hypertonicity of the uterus, which in the early stages often leads to spontaneous abortion. Depending on the characteristics and stage of this process, several types of spontaneous abortions are distinguished:
- threatening - the woman notes painful contractions, an increased tone of the uterus is noted on ultrasound;
- begun - at this moment, the ovum begins to be torn away from the walls of the uterus, and its neck opens, preparing for its exit from the body. Severe cramping pains appear and bleeding begins. At this time, there is still a chance of maintaining the pregnancy;
- incomplete miscarriage - part of the ovum has gone beyond the uterus - pain and bleeding intensify;
- complete miscarriage - the ovum came out of the uterus, the cervix closed - the contractions stopped, the bleeding ended.
- failed miscarriage - the ovum died, but remains in the uterine cavity.
What to do with a threatened miscarriage
To avoid such threats, a woman should register for pregnancy and childbirth as early as possible. If alarming symptoms appear, you need to see a doctor as soon as possible. A special examination will help the doctor assess the level of real threat to the continuation of pregnancy and prescribe treatment to relieve the tone of the uterus. To maintain pregnancy, a woman is assigned hospitalization, complete rest with the exception of stressful situations and physical activity. To remove the threat of abortion, antispasmodic drugs, vitamins and hormonal therapy are prescribed as indicated.
To prevent the development of such complications, even at the stage of pregnancy planning, a woman must be tested for latent infections, treat them and give up bad habits. The correct positive attitude and a calm emotional state of a pregnant woman are also of great importance.