One of the most important indicators of human health deviations is the amount of glucose in the blood. Sometimes they also talk about the amount of sugar. Glucose is a more correct term, but for the sake of simplicity, it is permissible to talk about sugar. It is the most important component of human metabolism. If there is little glucose in the body, or in excess of it, any of these situations provokes serious violations.
Glucose enters the body along with food, then it is absorbed by the digestive system and enters the bloodstream, which, in turn, carries it to all organs and tissues. This is the main source of energy for the human body, it can be compared to gasoline, which runs most cars, or electricity, which is necessary for the functioning of technology. In order for glucose to enter cells, it is placed in an insulin membrane while in the circulatory system.
Insulin is a special hormone produced by the pancreas. Without it, glucose will not be able to enter the cells, which means it will not be assimilated. If a problem begins with the production of insulin, then the person develops diabetes. He needs constant injections. The blood of a diabetic patient will be oversaturated with glucose until the body receives the missing hormone from the outside. An insulin capsule is necessary for the absorption of glucose by muscle and adipose tissues, the liver, but some organs are able to receive glucose without it. These are the heart, kidneys, liver, lens, nervous system, including the brain.
In the digestive system, glucose is absorbed very quickly. This substance is a monomer of which important polysaccharides such as glycogen, cellulose and starch are composed. In the human body, glucose is oxidized, as a result of which the release of energy is formed, which is spent on all sorts of physiological processes.
If an excess amount of glucose enters the body, then it is quickly utilized, turning into energy reserves. On its basis, glycogen is formed, which is then deposited in various places and tissues of the body, as a reserve source of energy. If there is already enough glycogen in the cell depot, then glucose begins to turn into fat and be deposited in the body.
Glycogen is vital for muscles. It is he who, when decaying, gives the energy necessary for the work and restoration of cells. In the muscles, it is constantly consumed, but the reserves are not reduced. This is due to the fact that new portions of glycogen are constantly coming from the liver so that its level always remains constant.
The normal fasting blood glucose level is from 3.5 to 6.1 mmol / liter. High blood sugar is hyperglycemia. The causes of this condition can be various diseases, including diabetes mellitus and metabolic dysfunctions. This is usually diagnosed by analyzing urine, through which the body will excrete sugar. Short-term hyperglycemia can be caused by various phenomena, such as overexertion, eating a lot of sweets, and others, this is normal.
Too low a concentration of glucose in the blood is called hypoglycemia. Short-term hypoglycemia occurs when a person eats a lot of quickly digestible carbohydrates, then the sugar level first rises sharply and then drops sharply. Constant hypoglycemia appears due to metabolic disorders, liver or kidney diseases, as well as a lack of carbohydrates in the diet. Symptoms are weakness, trembling in the limbs, dizziness, hunger, pallor, fear.