How To Treat Allergies?

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How To Treat Allergies?
How To Treat Allergies?

Video: How To Treat Allergies?

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Allergy is an inadequate response of the immune system to harmless substances. In case of allergy, the body perceives these substances as dangerous, even when in contact with a small amount of the allergen, showing unusual sensitivity. Currently, according to doctors' estimates, almost a third of the population suffers from allergies to one degree or another.

How to treat allergies?
How to treat allergies?

Allergy treatment: general principles

First of all, it is necessary to limit the patient's contact with the allergen as much as possible: do not eat foods that cause allergic reactions, follow a therapeutic diet, create conditions that exclude household allergens from entering the body and the effect of additional factors that aggravate the development of the disease.

It is necessary to consult a doctor for prescribing treatment and diagnostics: in some cases, special tests are required to identify allergens. Only a specialist can prescribe antiallergic (antihistamines) drugs, he will also select the dosage and the best combination of drugs.

Allergy medication

Antihistamines are the most common treatment for allergies. Usually prescribed drugs of the second or third generation ("Cetrin", "Claritin", "Erius", "Zyrtec"), which have fewer side effects, including drowsiness, compared to the first generation drugs (diphenhydramine).

Often, in addition to antihistamines, in case of allergies, sorbents must be taken to accelerate the elimination of allergens from the body.

For severe forms of allergy, glucocorticosteroid drugs have proven their effectiveness. The prejudice of many patients against hormonal pills, injections and ointments is based on the experience of using drugs of the first generation, which had many side effects. Modern hormonal drugs for the treatment of allergies are safer, however, their independent prescription and exceeding the recommended period for taking the drug is strictly prohibited. Corticosteroids can be used topically to relieve an exacerbation or supportive treatment, or in forms for systemic exposure, in which case they are taken in a short course to combat severe exacerbations.

Specific desensitization method

A method such as allergen-specific immunotherapy (ASIT), or a method of specific desensitization (hyposensitization) is also used. In this case, an allergen is injected into the patient's body with a gradual increase in the dose, usually in the form of injections of purified allergens. After a certain time, the body's tolerance to the allergen is formed, and inadequate reactions no longer arise.

Allergen-specific immunotherapy is carried out under the supervision of a physician, after the introduction of the allergen, it is necessary to stay under supervision in order to avoid anaphylactic shock - the most formidable manifestation of allergy.

Such treatment is recommended in cases where contact with the allergen cannot be prevented, and the effect of drug therapy is insufficient. The method is designed for a long time - the average course of treatment lasts 3 years, but after a few months the need for the use of hormonal and antihistamines decreases, the patient's quality of life improves.

Non-drug treatments

For allergies, physiotherapy is indicated (stay in a baro- and speleo chamber), plasmapheresis (hardware purification of blood plasma), climatotherapy and spa treatment are recommended. A short stay at sea sometimes significantly reduces the symptoms of allergies, but it must be remembered that excessive exposure to ultraviolet rays and a sharp change in climate can lead to a worsening of the condition.

The effectiveness of alternative medicine methods for the treatment of allergies does not yet have sufficient evidence, however, with a prolonged lack of the desired effect with conventional drug treatment, some patients turn to homeopathy, acupuncture or herbal medicine.

Allergy treatment for different types of immune response

Depending on the type of body reaction, additional treatment is prescribed to relieve specific symptoms. So, with allergic dermatitis, accompanied by the appearance of a rash, irritation, dry skin, moisturizing, wound healing or drying ointments and creams are used.

Allergic rhinitis and conjunctivitis, in addition to antihistamines, are also treated with decongestants and anti-inflammatory drugs. In bronchial asthma, bronchodilators are prescribed.

For people who are allergic to drugs, in case of emergency, doctors recommend wearing a special bracelet indicating all drugs to which an allergic reaction has been recorded at least once.

For almost all types of allergies, it is recommended to exclude or limit foods that most often cause allergic reactions (citrus fruits, cocoa and chocolate, nuts, brightly colored fruits and vegetables) from the diet. It is recommended to introduce new and unfamiliar foods into the diet one at a time and in small quantities.

Contact with pets and birds should be limited and living conditions should be created in which contact with household allergens would be minimized. This requires frequent wet cleaning, daily airing of the premises, it is not recommended to keep carpets, bedding made of natural materials, houseplants in the premises.

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