The human eye is one of the most complex human organs, it has an amazing ability to adapt to changing environmental conditions and can distinguish a large number of colors. In fact, this is one of the most advanced optical systems.
What colors distinguish human eyes
The human eye contains two categories of color-sensitive receptors: the first are responsible for night vision (help a person to distinguish colors at dusk), the second for color. The retina of the human eye contains three types of cones that distinguish colors and shades. Possessing high sensitivity, they are responsible for what colors a person sees. In this case, the maximum sensitivity falls on the blue, green and red parts of the spectrum. That is why humans recognize these colors best. It should be noted that the spectral sensitivity range of all three cones overlaps, therefore, when exposed to very strong light radiation, the human eye perceives it as a blinding white color. Thanks to light-sensitive receptors and cones, a person is able to distinguish not only 7 colors of the rainbow, but a much larger number of colors and their shades.
How many colors does the human eye recognize?
Since ancient times, scientists have determined the number of human recognizable colors and shades in different ways. They now agree that there are about 150,000 color tones and shades. In this case, the human eye under normal conditions can distinguish about 100 shades by the color background. The ability to recognize more colors can be trained. Artists, decorators, designers and people of similar professions can distinguish about 150 colors by color tones, about 25 by saturation and up to 64 by light level.
The figures given may vary depending on the degree of training of a person, his physiological state, as well as lighting conditions. For example, under certain conditions, a person can distinguish about 500 shades of gray.
And if you compare with a camera
In the era of digital cameras and cameras, it will be interesting to compare the photosensitive receptors of the human retina with megapixels of cameras. Translating the color sensitivity of the human eye into the language of digital cameras, we can say that there will be approximately 120-140 megapixels in each eye. In modern cameras, the average number of pixels is an order of magnitude less, therefore, the pixel density per millimeter will be lower. That is why the angular resolution of the eye will be several times higher than that of a camera with a 23 mm lens focal length (this is the focal length of the lens of the eye).