Neuralgia is a disease characterized by damage to the peripheral nerve and accompanied by severe, burning, piercing pain in the innervation zone. Unlike neuritis, neuralgia is characterized by signs of nerve irritation.
There are neuralgias of the cranial (glossopharyngeal, trigeminal) and spinal (intercostal) nerves, as well as the femoral nerves. The causes of the disease can be: hypothermia, inflammation, trauma, intoxication, tumors, stress, demyelinating processes.
Neuralgia of the trigeminal nerve (facial nerve) develops as a result of the action of central and peripherally determined causal factors. Factors of central genesis include painful paroxysm of cortical-subcortical genesis. Paroxysm is a manifestation of the disease that suddenly occurs, is sharply different in relation to the usual state, continues for a short time and stops spontaneously.
A factor of peripheral genesis is a pain syndrome that appears during infections, toxic, viral (herpetic), allergic lesions. It can develop when the trigeminal nerve is compressed by the vessels. Neuralgia of the facial nerve can appear in diseases of the teeth, ENT organs, multiple sclerosis, lesions of the upper cervical spine, tumors, injuries of the cerebrospinal junction.
Neuralgia of the pterygopalatine node (Sluder's neuralgia) develops during inflammatory processes in the ENT organs. The causes of damage to the glossopharyngeal nerve are: infectious diseases (tonsillitis, tonsillitis, flu), trauma to the amygdala bed, tumors of the cerebellar angle, tumors of the larynx, fracture of the skull base, complications after tracheotomy, tonsillectomy, mechanical ventilation.
Herpetic neuralgia is a complication of herpesvirus infection, which most often develops in the elderly and in patients with impaired immunity. Intercostal neuralgia can be caused by the following reasons: hypothermia, severe stress, prolonged physical activity, inflammatory diseases, severe cough, rib trauma, pathologies of the thoracic spine.
Femoral nerve neuralgia (or Roth's disease) is characterized by pain, burning, tingling, numbness in the innervation zone - the anterior-outer surface of the thigh. The pain can be paroxysmal, constant, acute, aching. Femoral nerve neuralgia appears with dyshemic metabolic disorders (diabetes mellitus, alcohol intoxication), with vascular diseases of the lower extremities. It can develop as a result of compression of the nerve at the site of its exit (under the inguinal fold) with a belt-bandage.