What Are The Types Of Anemia

What Are The Types Of Anemia
What Are The Types Of Anemia

Video: What Are The Types Of Anemia

Video: Hematology | Types of Anemias 2022, October

Anemia is a pathology in which the level of hemoglobin is always low. The number of red blood cells may also be reduced or their shape changed. Depending on the cause of the occurrence, anemia is divided into the corresponding types.

What are the types of anemia
What are the types of anemia

Hemolytic anemia

In the hemolytic form of anemia, hemoglobin is destroyed due to defects in erythrocytes. Pathology can occur when taking a number of medications, after infectious diseases. Against the background of anemia, jaundice often develops. The main factors provoking the development of hemolytic anemia: lack of vitamin E, heredity, the action of chemicals or poisons, autoimmune processes, malaria, mechanical stress, when there are implants in vital organs.

With this type of anemia, the patient experiences general weakness, increased fatigue. Body temperature can rise to subfebrile levels. The spleen is enlarged. The risk of stone formation in the kidneys and bile ducts increases.

Treatment is aimed at eliminating all the causes of the anemia. If necessary, the spleen is removed. For long-term use, appoint: "Feramide", "Maltofer", "Tardiferon", "Zhektofer" or similar drugs.

Aplastic anemia

Aplastic anemia develops under the influence of chemicals, viral infections. In addition, the hereditary factor plays an important role. Symptoms of this type of anemia: fever, fatigue, bleeding gums, hypotension, systematic nosebleeds.

As a therapy, anti-lymphocyte and antithymocyte immunoglobulin, platelet-erythrocyte transfusion are used. Bone marrow transplantation is performed in an emergency. It is rather difficult to find a donor whose 5 out of 6 antigens match.

Iron-deficiency anemia

Insufficient intake of iron or the presence of factors that prevent it from being absorbed cause iron deficiency anemia. Often this form of anemia occurs during pregnancy, after operations with extensive blood loss, with diseases of the gastrointestinal tract.

The patient is recommended to take iron supplements, follow a diet that includes meat, liver, eggs, buckwheat.

Pernicious anemia

Pernicious anemia occurs with a lack of vitamin B12 and folic acid. Symptoms of this type of anemia: damage to the nervous system, dyspeptic disorders, dry tongue, fatigue, drowsiness. Risk factors are alcoholism, pregnancy, and uncontrolled use of drugs.

As the main therapy, the patient is prescribed injections of vitamin B12, folic acid intake. It is also necessary to eliminate all factors that provoke pernicious anemia.

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