One of the most common ovarian diseases is cysts. They are often asymptomatic and can only be detected by ultrasound or functional examination. The methods of treating such neoplasms are different and depend, first of all, on the characteristics of the development of the cysts themselves.
Cysts are of two types: functional and non-functional. 70% of all ovarian cysts are functional. Among them, the cysts of the corpus luteum and follicular are distinguished. Functional ones are benign neoplasms. Often, cysts can resolve themselves, for example, corpus luteum cysts usually regress within one menstrual cycle. Non-functional cysts are dermoid and endometrioid cysts, they can become malignant and degenerate into a cancerous process.
Only a gynecologist can diagnose ovarian cysts. For this, a manual examination is carried out - if the size of the neoplasm is large enough, then it can be detected through the abdominal wall. In addition to manual examination, ultrasound diagnostics, computed tomography and laparoscopy are performed. You can also do a complete blood count to rule out inflammation. From the consultations of specialists, a visit is made to an endocrinologist or gynecologist-endocrinologist. This is because many cysts are hormonally dependent.
This process can be treated conservatively, but it can be done promptly. Initially, the gynecologist will most likely choose a waiting tactic: the cyst will be monitored, periodically conducting examinations. If it does not increase in size, then it can be treated with medication. If the neoplasm grows, it must be removed. But it is impossible to leave the cyst completely unattended, because it can grow or become complicated.
With a favorable course, cysts are treated with medication. Be sure to prescribe therapy with female sex hormones, under the influence of which the neoplasm is significantly reduced, and sometimes completely disappears. In addition, hormonal drugs regulate the menstrual cycle and the overall hormonal balance. Also, a course intake of vitamins and minerals is prescribed, especially folic acid, which is necessary for the health of the female reproductive system. Antibiotics are not used in the treatment of cysts, because such a neoplasm is not an infectious disease, and there simply will not be a point of application for antibiotics.
Surgically, the cyst is removed if it grows in size, disrupts the functions of neighboring organs and does not respond to hormonal therapy. An immediate operation is also performed if complications are suspected. Complications include: malignancy (when malignant degeneration begins), rupture of the ovarian cyst (when the wall of the cyst is damaged and its contents are poured into the pelvic cavity), torsion of the cyst on the pedicle (if the cyst has a mushroom shape and is located on a thin base). The last two complications are dangerous by the development of peritonitis - inflammation of the mesentery, which is very difficult. Therefore, the ovarian cyst should be monitored, regularly visited by a gynecologist and examined.