In the diagnosis of a number of hematological diseases, laboratory examination of the bone marrow is of great importance. The most complete picture of the state of the hematopoietic system is given by puncture of the bone marrow, which makes it possible to detect the smallest changes in its composition.
What is bone marrow puncture
Bone marrow puncture (sternal puncture) is a simple diagnostic manipulation that makes it possible to make an accurate diagnosis, evaluate treatment and predict the outcome of blood diseases (anemias and oncological pathologies). The most commonly used method for examining red bone marrow punctate is myelogram. This analysis allows you to estimate the percentage of different cells in the bone marrow. Sternal puncture is a medical manipulation.
The bone marrow is the main organ of hematopoiesis, therefore, with diseases of the hematopoietic apparatus, its functional state first of all changes.
Usually, the operation is performed on the upper third of the body of the sternum, while the patient lies on his back. The essence of the method is that the bone is pierced with a special sterile needle with a limiter that allows you to adjust the depth of penetration. In this case, the needle should be located perpendicular to the sternum. The puncture is made in one quick motion, after which the needle is immobilized. The bone marrow is taken with a syringe in the amount of 0.5-1 ml.
If during the puncture it was not possible to collect the bone material, then the needle is slightly displaced without removing it, and then the attempt is repeated. After taking the material, remove the syringe with the needle, and seal the puncture site with a sterile plaster. Due to the risk of clotting of brain cells, prepared smears are examined immediately. Excess blood during the preparation of the material is removed with filter paper.
Patients who have been taking corticosteroids for a long time are prone to osteoporosis. Therefore, the puncture of the bone marrow in such patients should be carried out with caution.
Is such an operation dangerous for the patient?
During bone marrow puncture, undesirable consequences occur, but they are very rare. First of all, this is due to infection of the cavity in which the bone marrow is located. It is possible to harm the internal organs only in the event of a gross violation of the rules for carrying out this method. Damage to large vessels during such an operation is simply impossible due to the anatomical features of a person.
The puncture procedure in children, especially newborns, has its own characteristics. Due to the risk of a sternum puncture, it is carried out in the upper third of the tibia or in the heel bone.