Failure of blood pressure is no longer a rarity in childhood. Frequent deviations from the average indicators may indicate serious illnesses. Parents need to constantly monitor and know the limits of blood pressure in children, based on their age.

## What is the normal blood pressure for children?

Blood pressure is expressed in two values: systolic (the highest blood pressure on the walls of blood vessels) and diastolic (lowest). Children have more elastic vessel walls, their lumen is wider, the capillary network is better developed and the blood pressure is less than in adults. That is why blood pressure in children is much lower.

Cardiologists and pediatricians use special formulas to calculate normal blood pressure in children. The norms of systolic pressure in children under one year old are determined by the formula 76 + 2n, where n is equal to the number of months. Children from 1 year old use the formula of I.M. Voronin: 90 + 2n, where n equals the number of years. The upper threshold of the norm is 105 + 2n, the lower one is 75 + 2n.

Diastolic blood pressure in children under 12 months of age is approximately 0.5 times the maximum systolic pressure. In children over 12 months old, the formula 60 + n is used when determining the norm, where n denotes the number of years. The upper limit is 75 + n, the lower is 45 + n.

Up to 5 years old, boys and girls have the same pressure, after 5 years - higher in boys. At the age of 12-14, it rises in girls, and after 16, boys again begin to outpace girls in terms of blood pressure.

Average values of normal blood pressure in children vary greatly depending on age. For babies up to 2 weeks, the norm is 60–96 systolic to 40–50 diastolic; from 2 weeks to 2 months - 80–112 for 40–74; from 2 months to 2 years - 90–112 for 50–74; from 2 to 10 years old - 100–122 for 60–78; 10-13 years old - 110-126 for 70-82 and 13-16 years old - 110-136 for 70-86

Factors affecting disruptions in blood pressure include:

- age;

- frequency and intensity of physical activity;

- negative and positive emotions;

- the value of sleep;

- Atmosphere pressure;

- changes in the weather;

- Times of Day;

- time of the year;

- Lifestyle;

- stress;

- daily regime;

- concomitant diseases and other reasons.

## How is blood pressure measured in babies?

When measuring pressure in a child, you need to use special cuffs. The use of adult cuffs may distort the result.

Blood pressure in children is measured with a blood pressure monitor after 5-10 minutes of rest in a comfortable and calm environment in a sitting position (for older children) and in a lying position (for infants). The ulnar fossa should be at the level of the heart. The pressure is measured 2 times on both hands with a break of 2-4 minutes, always taking into account the higher value.

In childhood, there is often a shift in blood pressure indicators, both downward and upward. To avoid sudden jumps, children definitely need to do exercises, separate intellectual and physical labor and be extremely attentive to their health. It is necessary to constantly monitor the indicators and consult a doctor for any deviations.