Proper nutrition and diet for cholecystitis is one of the most important stages of treatment. Indeed, from the consumption of prohibited foods, inflammation and pain can intensify so much that emergency measures will have to be taken.
What is cholecystitis?
Cholecystitis is an inflammatory disease in which the properties of bile change, and the walls of the gallbladder are affected. Every year the number of people with this diagnosis only increases. In total, there are two forms of the disease: chronic, which is diagnosed more often by local therapists, and acute, which is diagnosed by surgeons in the emergency department. The onset of cholecystitis is possible as a result of many factors, but the most common are:
- Formation of stones in the gallbladder that disrupt drainage and damage the walls of the gallbladder.
- Improper nutrition. In particular, food in which there is a constant abuse of fatty, high-calorie foods, cooked in a pan or deep-fried with a large amount of oil.
- Psycho-emotional instability. Prolonged stressful condition.
- Hormonal imbalance. In particular, taking medications to stimulate ovulation in in vitro fertilization protocols and maintaining pregnancy after.
- Heredity, as well as an abnormal shape of the gallbladder. The presence of partitions and constrictions in the organ, which can disrupt the outflow of bile.
- Viruses and bacteria that can enter the gallbladder and cause inflammation. Most often, infections were simply in the body in a chronic, sluggish form.
Also, some types of pharmacological drugs can affect the occurrence of cholecystitis. In particular, cyclosporine, octreotide and clofibrate.
The younger the patient's age, the more likely it is that inflammation is not accompanied by stone formation. And if a patient over 30 years old gets with symptoms of cholecystitis, then there is a high probability that stones will be found in the gall.
An interesting fact is that even the presence of an inflammatory process in this organ may not at all violate its main functions. But it is also possible not only a violation, but also a complete shutdown of this organ. That is why it is so important to follow all the doctor's recommendations during treatment. This also applies to nutrition. Indeed, otherwise, if necessary, the surgeon will have to remove the inflamed organ.
What are the symptoms of cholecystitis?
In the presence of a chronic form of the disease, the patient may not complain of specific pain in the gallbladder area. Sometimes no pain is felt at all and the disease is discovered quite by accident during a routine examination or diagnosis of other health problems.
But if the disease is acute, then the patient has a whole list of symptoms. In addition, the disease most often manifests itself after a meal or a lot of stress.
The main symptoms of cholecystitis are:
- Pain localized in the right hypochondrium. In rare cases, the patient may feel echoes of pain in the neck, under the right shoulder blade, or in the right shoulder. There are also cases of localization of pain in the left hypochondrium and under the spoon.
- The patient may experience general weakness, aching muscles. The general body temperature may rise somewhat, and the appetite may completely disappear.
- A patient with an exacerbation of the disease may complain of bloating, nausea and vomiting, bowel disorders and a bitter taste in the mouth.
- The person may experience headache and increased sweating.
The severity and number of symptoms can vary depending on the course of the disease.
Complications of cholecystitis
If the disease is not diagnosed in a timely manner and treatment is not started, then it can worsen and go to the neighboring pancreas. Then the patient will already be diagnosed with pancreatitis. In addition, the following complications of the disease are possible:
- The transition of ordinary inflammation to purulent.
- Disconnection of the gallbladder.
- Blockage of the bile duct and the formation of gallstone disease.
- Formation of fistulas in the gallbladder, its perforation and further tissue necrosis.
To prevent complications, reduce the symptoms of the disease and be cured, you need to eat according to a special menu, which should be drawn up by the attending physician.
The basics of the cholecystitis diet
Diet with cholecystitis helps to significantly reduce the patient's pain. In addition, proper nutrition is considered one of the most important parts of the treatment of this disease. Meals should include a certain regimen, when the patient eats 5-6 times a day at the same time. In this case, 3 meals should be dense, and the remaining light. In addition to excluding all fatty, fried, smoked, spicy, pickled and generously seasoned foods from the diet, the patient should observe the following nutritional principles:
- It is necessary to increase the amount of protein consumed per day by lowering carbohydrates and fats in the diet.
- Food should be steamed or boiled. It is forbidden to use rich broth soups. It is best if at the time of exacerbation of the disease, the patient will eat light vegetarian meals.
- You can not eat hot and cold dishes. Food should be at a comfortable temperature.
- It is important to monitor the amount of water consumed. You need to drink about 2 liters of clean, non-carbonated water per day.
- Eat must be chewed slowly and thoroughly.
- The products that make up the patient's diet in any case should not cause a feeling of heaviness, bloating and increased gas formation.
What should not be eaten with inflammation of the gallbladder?
With cholecystitis and pancreatitis, in addition to fried and fatty, it is forbidden to eat fried soups cooked in any meat or mushroom broth. You should not add any semi-finished products to your food. All food these days should be fresh and home-cooked. This is due to the fact that it is not always possible to find out how a particular dish was actually prepared. As a result, a sharp exacerbation of the disease after eating is possible.
During the acute form of cholecystitis, you should not eat baked goods and pastries. Also, due to the possibility of heartburn and gas, it is forbidden to eat foods such as sorrel, all types of legumes, cabbage, radishes, radishes, sauerkraut, onions and garlic. It is forbidden to eat fatty fish. It is best to drink plain water or herbal teas. During cholecystitis, a contraindication is the use of coffee and products containing cocoa.
Most desserts are also prohibited throughout the illness. This is especially true for chocolate, ice cream, as well as all fatty, creamy and chocolate desserts.
During cholecystitis, you should not eat sour fruits and berries (kiwi, cranberries, pineapples, etc.). And if a patient has a complication in the form of pancreatitis, then it is forbidden to use any vegetables and fruits that are not thermally processed.
Also, with cholecystitis, the use of food additives such as horseradish, mustard and adjika, pepper is not allowed. Patients should not eat fat in any form.
What can you eat with gallstone disease and cholecystitis?
Nutrition for cholecystitis is also called Pevzner nutrition. But the most famous name for the diet is table number 5 or table number 5a in the acute course of an inflammatory disease.
And even despite a rather large number of restrictions and prohibitions, this diet is considered complete. The patient must receive the necessary amount of nutrients for the normal functioning of all systems in the body.
In order not to form stagnation of bile, the patient needs to reduce the amount of salt consumed as much as possible. Ideally, it should be completely eliminated from the diet. But it is allowed to use 6-10 grams per day.
The use of approved foods helps to relieve not only the gallbladder, but also other organs of the gastrointestinal tract. A large number of vegetables on the menu helps to get rid of excess bile, driving it along the pathways and stimulating intestinal motility.
The patient during an exacerbation of acute cholecystitis is forbidden to eat for 3 days. Only drinking is allowed. The minimum required to use 1.5 liters of water. It is also allowed to consume herbal tea made from rose hips, chamomile, mint or lemongrass. On the 4th day, the patient gradually begins to introduce products from the list of permitted ones, and natural juices without sugar diluted with water, compotes, mousses and light tea with lemon can be added from drinks.
In addition to all of the above, the patient can eat the following dishes:
- Oatmeal, buckwheat and semolina porridge. And also casseroles made from cottage cheese with the addition of noodles, pasta, rice, pumpkin seeds and sunflower seeds.
- Egg white omelets. Fresh, boiled and steamed dishes of potatoes, pumpkin, cauliflower, beets, zucchini, tomatoes, cucumbers, carrots and bell peppers.
- Low-fat fish and meat of veal, beef, rabbit and turkey. Steamed or boiled white chicken meat is allowed. It is allowed to eat seafood such as squid, shrimp, oysters and mussels.
- No more than 30 grams per day of butter, olive or other vegetable oil. Instead of sauces, you can use unspiced tomato paste, green sour cream or natural yogurt sauce with dill or parsley.
- From sweets, non-acidic baked fruits (apples), no more than 1 fresh banana, marshmallows in small quantities, mousses, marshmallows, honey, fresh pomegranates, uncooked baked pies, homemade crackers, unsweetened dry biscuits, yesterday's wheat bread, bran or rye bread are allowed flour.
- Milk and fermented milk products (kefir, fermented baked milk, sour cream).