Gestosis during pregnancy occurs in about 20-25%, they can be of varying severity, but most of them are conditions that threaten the life and health of the mother and the fetus. They require compulsory treatment. They often develop against the background of existing diseases, but they can also appear in healthy women without any pathologies provoking preeclampsia.
Gestosis in the early stages of pregnancy - nausea, vomiting are not threatening conditions and, as a rule, go away on their own, requiring treatment only in cases where a woman is exhausted or dehydrated. A much greater danger is posed by gestosis in the second half of pregnancy: edema, preeclampsia and eclampsia (convulsions of pregnant women).
Causes of gestosis
There are no exact reasons for the appearance of gestosis, that is, they cannot be predicted. However, the risk group includes women with somatic diseases of the endocrine system, kidneys, high blood pressure. Pregnancy at a young and mature age, a short break between pregnancies, excessive physical and mental stress, disturbances in the rest regimen also increase the risks of gestosis.
Symptoms of gestosis
The danger of gestosis is that they can be asymptomatic. Thus, pregnant women often do not feel high blood pressure and refuse treatment. It is possible to identify the onset of preeclampsia only in the laboratory - protein in the urine and high blood pressure figures are clear signs of incipient preeclampsia. Swelling may appear before the onset of pressure rise or join after. But already on the basis of laboratory data, the doctor can diagnose and send the pregnant woman to the hospital.
Treatment and prevention
There is no specific treatment for gestosis. When gestosis is detected, the actions of doctors are aimed at preventing complications. As a rule, these are:
- medical and protective regime;
- a gentle diet in order to naturally reduce edema and minimize the burden on the kidneys;
- antihypertensive therapy with approved drugs;
- monitoring the condition of the fetus and prescribing drugs that improve nutrition and minimize the risks of oxygen starvation of the fetus, premature placental abruption;
- preventive anticonvulsant therapy.
Most women diagnosed with gestosis give birth to healthy children, and their condition improves immediately after childbirth. The only thing is that you need to strictly follow the recommendations of doctors and understand that sometimes a therapeutic and protective regime and diet are enough to "contain" preeclampsia and prevent preeclampsia and eclampsia.
Preeclampsia and eclampsia
These conditions are life-threatening. Convulsions can occur suddenly, as a reaction to loud sound, stress, bright light. Severe headache, disorientation in space, tunnel vision are the harbingers. Flies may appear before the eyes, numbness of the fingers and limbs, a feeling of shortness of breath, nausea and dark spots before the eyes. If at this moment you are not in the hospital, you need to open the front door, lie down and call an ambulance.
The decision on early delivery will be made by a medical council already in the hospital. It is important to understand that even if the symptoms have passed, this is not a reason to refuse an ambulance call or hospitalization. Timely started treatment allows you to stop the crisis and preserve the pregnancy, bringing it to a later date with a planned delivery.
Prevention of gestosis
Prevention of gestosis should begin at the planning stage of pregnancy, but the transition to preventive measures at any time significantly reduces the risks.
- healthy lifestyle: smoking cessation, alcoholic beverages;
- adequate physical activity;
- taking vitamins;
- normalization of nutrition;
- normalization of work and rest;
- treatment of somatic diseases;
- compliance with all doctor's prescriptions.
Childbirth, as a rule, takes place promptly, since there is a high risk of fulminant hypertension directly in childbirth with the subsequent development of eclampsia. Timely treatment of preeclampsia allows for planned delivery and at a later date, when the fetus is already full-term.