Diabetes mellitus is a disease of the endocrine system in which blood sugar levels rise due to a deficiency of insulin (a hormone of the pancreas) or impaired sensitivity of the body to it.
Along the way, type 1 diabetes mellitus is distinguished (mainly children and young people are sick) and type 2 (people over 40 are sick). Diabetes mellitus of pregnant women (first diagnosed during pregnancy) and secondary diabetes are distinguished separately.
Diabetes mellitus is not inherited, only a genetic predisposition to it is transmitted. If one of the parents is sick with diabetes, then the risk of developing the disease in a child increases to 25%. If both parents are sick, then the risk is increased to 60% or more. This is very important to consider when getting married and planning a pregnancy.
In type 1 diabetes, insulin deficiency occurs due to malfunctioning of the pancreas. The provoking factors that can give rise to the development of the disease are severe viral infections such as rubella, mumps (mumps), chickenpox, hepatitis, but diabetes can appear against the background of complete well-being. In young children, the disease can begin after severe fright. This type of diabetes is characterized by a rapid onset and sudden onset of symptoms.
Type II diabetes mellitus develops mainly against the background of increased body weight, with the consumption of excessive amounts of fatty foods and refined carbohydrates. The second provoking factor is hereditary predisposition. The combination of these two factors and age over 40 increase the risk of developing the disease by 2-3 times. This is the most common type of the disease, it occurs in 85% of cases, develops slowly, sometimes over several years.
Secondary diabetes is provoked by some diseases: pancreatitis, tumors, operations on the pancreas, thyroid diseases, genetic diseases, as well as taking certain medications.
The main symptoms of diabetes are increased appetite, increased urination, constant thirst (patients drink more than 3 liters of water per day) and dry mouth. Also, patients are worried about severe itching (especially in the genital area), dry skin and mucous membranes. The disease is characterized by drowsiness (since the body is poisoned with ketone bodies), wounds and scratches do not heal well. For type 1 diabetes, weight loss is symptomatic, for type 2, weight gain.
Treatment of the disease includes adherence to a special diet, the use of insulin injections for type 1 diabetes and hypoglycemic tablets for type 2. All patients benefit from exercise, obese people are advised to lose weight.
Prevention of diabetes:
- maintain a healthy weight
- exercise regularly
- do not eat large amounts of sugar and fat
Following these simple steps can help prevent diabetes or delay its onset if you have a predisposition.