Such a dangerous disease as diabetes mellitus has been known to physicians for a long time. In the days of Ancient Greece, there was no way to cure this ailment, and people suffering from it died from coma. In the Middle Ages, doctors provided only primitive help to such patients in the form of prescribing a special diet. Today, when doctors know the cause of diabetes, pills or injections can be prescribed to patients.
The answer to the question of what is the cause of diabetes mellitus depends to a large extent on what type of this disease is observed in the patient - the first or the second.
Why Type 1 Diabetes Occurs
This type of ailment is also called insulin-dependent. Diabetes mellitus of the first type occurs precisely because of the acute deficiency of this substance in the human body. This is usually due to damage to the pancreas, as a result of which the latter ceases to perform its functions.
The most common causes of this type of diabetes are:
- Death of insulin-producing pancreas cells as a result of autoimmune pathology. In this case, the human body begins to produce antibodies to its own cells with the destruction of the latter. This can happen, for example, as a result of the fact that a person has suffered a viral disease - rubella, mumps, hepatitis, etc.
- Increased activity of T-killer cells. That is, disorders of not only humoral, but also cellular immunity can lead to the onset of type 1 diabetes mellitus.
Causes of type 2 or non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus
In this case, the amount of sugar in urine and blood rises not because the body stops producing insulin, but as a result of the fact that tissue cells lose the ability to absorb it. Type 2 diabetes can be caused by:
- Genetic predisposition. It is believed that if one of the parents is sick with diabetes, the likelihood of this disease in children increases to 30%. If diabetes is diagnosed in both the mother and the father, the risk of developing the disease in the child will be 60%.
- Excessive body weight. Due to the large amount of adipose tissue in this case, the cells simply lose the ability to absorb insulin.
- Frequent stress. Because of this, substances such as glucocorticoids and catecholamines begin to accumulate in the human body. It is they who usually provoke the onset of diabetes.
- The patient has atherosclerosis. With this disease in humans, the sensitivity of cells to insulin decreases.
- Uncontrolled use of drugs. Long-term use of diuretics, antihypertensives, anticancer drugs, as well as thiazide diuretics and glucocorticoid hormones can lead to diabetes.
In women, the cause of diabetes can be, among other things, unhealthy diet during pregnancy. Very often, this unpleasant disease also develops in persons suffering from alcoholism or nicotine addiction.