Diabetes is a chronic disease characterized by metabolic disorders. The body disrupts the process of production and use of insulin, synthesized by the pancreas. In type 2 diabetes, the pancreas does not make enough of this hormone or the body cannot use it adequately.
In type 2 diabetes (the old name of this disease is "non-insulin dependent diabetes"), insulin is produced by the pancreas in normal or increased amounts, but the mechanism of interaction of this hormone with the cells of the body (insulin resistance) is disrupted. The main cause of insulin resistance is considered to be a disruption in the functioning of membrane insulin receptors in obesity. In this case, due to a change in the structure or quantity, the receptors are not able to interact with the hormone.
In addition to obesity, risk factors for the development of type 2 diabetes are the following: bad habits, chronic overeating, old age, arterial hypertension, and a sedentary lifestyle. This type of diabetes is often seen in people over the age of 40. Scientists have also proven a genetic predisposition to this disease. In some forms of type 2 diabetes, the structure of insulin is disrupted (genetic defects).
As a result of the development of diabetes mellitus, primary and secondary disorders appear in the body. The primary ones include: a decrease in the rate of the gluconidase reaction and glycogen synthesis, increased gluconeogenesis in the liver, hyperglycemia (an increase in blood sugar), glucosuria (an increase in urine sugar). Secondary disorders are: a decrease in glucose tolerance, a decrease in the rate of synthesis of fatty acids, protein, a violation of the phase of rapid insulin secretion in β-cells, an increase in the rate of release of fatty acids and protein from the depot.
Signs of type 2 diabetes include: thirst, dry mouth, frequent urination, itchy skin, unreasonable changes in body weight, severe hunger, headaches, blurred vision. In rare cases, loss of consciousness is observed. Other symptoms include: darkening of the skin of the neck, armpits, groin, very slow wound healing, numbness and tingling in the legs, and frequent fungal infections. Fatigue is often the main complaint.
Symptoms of type 2 diabetes develop rather slowly and are rarely diagnosed before various complications develop. The latter are: retinopathy (loss of vision), renal failure (nephropathy), diabetic foot (gangrene of the lower extremities), impotence, myocardial infarction, cerebral stroke, diabetic polyneuropathy (impaired touch).