GCS: What Is It In Medicine, Action

GCS: What Is It In Medicine, Action
GCS: What Is It In Medicine, Action

Video: GCS: What Is It In Medicine, Action

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The ability of the human body to cope with the disease on its own, at the expense of hidden resources, was often noted. Medical research carried out in the twentieth century has revealed the important influence of natural hormones on the quality of human life, their ability to cope with various diseases. The main hormone that manifests a versatile effect on all cells of the human body is a glucocorticosteroid or GCS.

GCS: what is it in medicine, action
GCS: what is it in medicine, action

Glucocorticosteroids - steroid hormones that are produced by the adrenal cortex, have a high biological activity. They affect water, protein, carbohydrate and other metabolic processes in the body. The most active naturally produced in humans is considered to be a corticosteroid. It has a versatile effect on the body, exhibits immunoregulatory, anti-stress, anti-shock and other effects.

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What does GCS mean in medicine

Although the body is capable of producing the natural glucocorticoid cortisol (GCC), doctors often prescribe synthetic analogs to treat a wide variety of diseases, not just adrenal insufficiency. So, among the systemic hormones in the adrenal cortex in 1937 was isolated. And already on its basis, the drugs hydrocortisone cortisone, often prescribed for heart diseases, were derived and produced. Decades later, the synthesis of drugs based on cortisone began, which had a wide range of effects on the body. The most common were synthetic analogs, more active, requiring lower doses of administration - Fluorinated drugs, non-fluorinated forms of corticoids

How do GCS work

The mechanism of action occurs at the cellular level, where glucocorticosteroids penetrate through the membrane and bind to cell receptors. How exactly their effect on the body occurs is not fully understood. Therefore, it is important not to self-medicate, to contact specialists in a timely manner for a more complete consultation and selection of a treatment regimen for a specific disease.

However, scientists have identified the formation of a complex ", which interacts with sections of the cell's DNA, sends signals to the pituitary gland. It, in turn, secretes corticotropin, which signals the adrenal glands which hormone to produce and where to deliver. He is also able to exhibit a reaction of suppression or activation of enzymes that affect the affected tissues.

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What are the effects of GCS

All glucocorticosteroids have pronounced effects on the body under various conditions. Five important areas can be identified.

  1. Anti-shock and anti-toxic effects. Entering the blood, they are able to increase blood pressure, activate enzymes produced in the liver and involved in the processing of foreign and their own microorganisms.
  2. Antiallergic effect. When interacting with the drug, there is a change in the immune response of tissues at the level of allergy mediators, a decrease in the production of secretion, cell sensitivity and inhibition of the formation of antibodies.
  3. Anti-inflammatory effect. GCS inhibit the enzyme phospholipase A2, due to which inflammatory processes in cells are inhibited, capillaries narrow, exudate release decreases, and circulation in the affected tissue areas improves.
  4. Immunosuppressive action. Drugs with corticoids can suppress the formation of immunity, cause a decrease in the production of antibodies in the body. In addition, they cause a decrease in the process of movement of stem cells, suppress the release of specific proteins from blood leukocytes.
  5. Mineralocorticoid effect. Entering the bloodstream, drugs with GCS retain water, sodium and other trace elements contribute to the accelerated excretion of potassium from tissues.

GCS classification

According to the duration of action, verified by measuring the response to a single dose of the drug, corticosteroids can be divided into the following types:

  • long-term effects on the body - drugs Dexamethasone, Betamethasone with a lasting effect for more than two days;
  • medium-acting - drugs Polcortolone, Triamcinolone are able to remain active for up to 48 hours;
  • short interaction - the drugs that suppress the activity of ACTH are Cortisol, Hydrocortisone, Metipred, Prednisolone, which act for 15-23 hours.
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In addition, there are four groups of glucocorticoids according to the route of administration:

  • Oral remedies. Available in the form of tablets, capsules for internal use. They are rapidly absorbed in the gastrointestinal tract, are connected to the protein chains of the plasma, the maximum concentration of corticosteroids is reached in an hour and a half. Metabolism occurs in the liver, waste products are excreted in feces and urine.

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  • Intranasal drugs. The pharmaceutical manufacturer produces them in the form of a spray, nasal drops. After ingestion, they are partially absorbed in the intestines, partially in the mucous membrane of the respiratory system. The half-life of inactive metabolites is up to 8 hours. They have high bioavailability.

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  • External medicines. Ointments, creams, gels, and solutions for injections are on sale on pharmacy shelves. Immediately after entering the bloodstream, through the skin, it is distributed through the bloodstream, into tissue cells, the action begins within 5-10 minutes, lasts 5-6 hours.

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  • Inhalation (inhalers). Dosage forms produced for asthmatics in the form of aerosols. The action of the funds begins immediately, lasts from 30 minutes to 1 hour.

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Medical professionals who receive patients and prescribe drugs with glucocorticosteroids often use the abbreviations "gks", "ingks" in prescriptions before the INN of the drug.

Indications for the appointment of GCS

The area of ​​application of these drugs is quite extensive. However, they are, to a greater extent, used in complex treatment and are very rarely used as monotherapy for the disease. Doctors prescribe them for the following diseases:

  • swelling of the brain;
  • keratitis of the eye;
  • allergic and vasomotor rhinitis;
  • asthma of various origins (medicinal, bronchial);
  • sarcoidosis of the lungs;
  • acute leukemia;
  • allergies of various etiologies;
  • anemia of any origin (after injuries, during pregnancy);
  • reduced immunity;
  • collagenosis of the connective tissue of the joints;
  • cartilaginous degeneration of the spine;
  • helminthiasis (tapeworms);
  • inflammatory / infectious processes on the skin;
  • diseases of the gastrointestinal tract.

In addition, they are often prescribed in the postoperative period, after radiation, chemotherapy, or trauma, for quick recovery of the body.

Contraindications for use

The classical scheme of therapy for various diseases notes the main contraindication for repeated administration of a glucocorticoid -

With long-term therapy, the list of persons for whom the reception is contraindicated increases. This includes the following patient conditions:

  • diabetes;
  • epilepsy;
  • hypertension;
  • diseases of the kidneys, liver in the acute stage;
  • lung disease (tuberculosis);
  • chronic psycho-emotional disorders;
  • pregnancy / lactation;
  • venereal diseases.

Adverse reactions of the body to the action of GCS

All glucocorticoids are capable of changing the hormonal background, causing an imbalance in the body in case of an overdose of the drug, especially inhibiting the function of the adrenal glands. Among the frequently encountered side effects, after taking drugs orally or externally, the following reactions can be distinguished:

  • euphoria, sleep disturbance;
  • thromboembolism, myocardial dystrophy;
  • fatty liver hepatosis;
  • glaucoma / cataract;
  • hair loss;
  • impotence / frigidity;
  • edema of various localization;
  • obesity / diabetes mellitus;
  • susceptibility to injury / fracture.

In the case of using inhaled drugs with glucocorticosteroids, severe coughing, fungal contamination of the oral mucosa may occur. Intranasal forms of drugs cause various irritations, dryness, itching and other manifestations in the nasopharynx and nose.

NB! It is necessary to take into account the ability of corticosteroids to cause "withdrawal syndrome" and not to stop treatment abruptly, but to gradually reduce the dose of the drug.

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