During the normal course of pregnancy, the muscle of the uterus is relaxed, an increase in tone is said if it begins to contract. Hypertonicity of the uterus is a dangerous condition that threatens health and can cause miscarriage.
Causes of the appearance of uterine hypertonicity
Hormonal malfunctions of the reproductive system lead to an increase in the tone of the uterus in the early stages of pregnancy. Most often, this condition is caused by a decrease in the production of the pregnancy hormone progesterone. Lack of progesterone is observed with hyperandrogenism, genital infantilism, hyperlactinemia.
Hyperandrogenism is an increase in the production in the female body by the ovaries or adrenal glands of male sex hormones - androgens. In this condition, before pregnancy, there are delays in the menstrual cycle, porous greasy skin, increased hair growth, pustules on the skin of the face and back. Often, with hyperandrogenism, ovulation is absent (the release of an egg from the ovary).
Genital infantilism is an underdevelopment of the genitals. The increase in tone in this case is due to the fact that the underdeveloped uterus contracts with the progression of pregnancy in response to overstretching. Hyperprolactinemia is an increase in prolactin production that causes progesterone deficiency. Endometriosis, uterine fibroids, inflammatory diseases, hormonal infertility before pregnancy can also cause increased uterine tone.
Hypertonicity of the uterus also appears with muscle overstretching caused by polyhydramnios, multiple pregnancies, and a large fetus. Pathology can manifest itself in case of malfunctions in the regulation of muscle tone, in case of disturbances in the functioning of the central nervous system, which can be caused by hard physical work, a chronic stressful situation, or an acute infectious disease.
Consequences of uterine hypertonicity
In the early stages of pregnancy, hypertonicity of the uterus can be manifested by pulling pains in the lower abdomen, reminiscent of pain before menstruation. Sometimes they appear in the lumbar region. With such symptoms, be sure to visit a doctor. If you do not take any measures, the woman may have contractions, which lead to premature birth or miscarriage.
The increased tone of the uterus causes a sharp decrease in uteroplacental blood flow, in this case, hypotrophy (growth retardation) and / or hypoxia (lack of oxygen) of the fetus may occur. Regardless of the reasons for the increased tone, pregnant women are recommended to bed rest, taking antispasmodics, sedatives, drugs that lower the activity of the uterus. Hospitalization is necessary in all cases when uterine hypertonicity is accompanied by cramping or pulling pains in the lower back or lower abdomen.