The First Signs Of Acute Leukemia In Children

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The First Signs Of Acute Leukemia In Children
The First Signs Of Acute Leukemia In Children

Video: The First Signs Of Acute Leukemia In Children

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Video: Leukemia in Children – Pediatrics | Lecturio 2023, February

Leukemia is a systemic blood disease characterized by abnormal and rapid growth of "abnormal" bone marrow cells. As a result, the normal functioning of all organs and systems is disrupted. Without timely treatment, leukemia is fatal.

The first signs of acute leukemia in children
The first signs of acute leukemia in children


Step 1

According to medical statistics, leukemia is diagnosed in 4-5 children out of 100,000. The peak incidence occurs at the age of 2-4 years. The first signs of acute leukemia are fatigue, pain in bones and joints, sleep disturbance, decreased appetite, and increased body temperature. Sometimes the disease begins suddenly, in this case there are symptoms of severe intoxication, hemorrhagic syndrome. In children with acute leukemia, the skin and mucous membranes become pale, less often icteric, sometimes the skin becomes sallow-greenish. Often there is an increase in lymph nodes, sometimes the symptom complex of Mikulich is determined - a symmetrical increase in the salivary and lacrimal glands due to their infiltration. The child's face becomes puffy.

Step 2

One of the most common signs of acute leukemia is hemorrhagic syndrome. In this case, the child develops hemorrhages in the skin and mucous membranes, bleeding from the gums, nose, gastrointestinal tract, hematuria, and cerebral hemorrhages. Sometimes gingivitis and stomatitis develop, leukemic infiltration of the skin and mucous membranes is observed. A characteristic symptom of acute leukemia is hepatosplenomegaly (simultaneous enlargement of the liver and spleen). Pain in joints and bones is caused by leukemic infiltration, hemorrhages in the articular cavity, the appearance of periosteal leukemic infiltrates. Sometimes cardiovascular disorders (tachycardia, deafness of heart sounds, functional murmurs) are observed. The appearance of pneumonia is possible.

Step 3

Neuroleukemia (damage to the central nervous system) develops due to metastasis in the nervous system of blast cells. Often this process occurs in the initial period of the disease. It can be detected with normal hematopoiesis. Signs of neuroleukemia are headache, dizziness, nausea, pain in the spine and intercostal space, diplopia (visual impairment). In some children, in a short period of time, body weight increases sharply, thirst, bulimia, associated with damage to the diencephalic region, are observed.

Step 4

To determine the therapeutic tactics, the course of leukemia is divided into three stages. The first stage (the onset of the disease) is the period from the onset of clinical symptoms to the effect of the treatment. The second stage is remission, which can be complete or incomplete. Complete remission lasts at least 1 month, there are no clinical manifestations, no more than 30% of lymphocytes and no more than 5% of blast cells are found in the myelogram. Incomplete remission is characterized by the normalization of clinical parameters; no more than 20% of blast cells are found in the punctate of the red bone marrow. The third stage of acute leukemia is a relapse of the disease. It begins with the appearance of foci of leukemic infiltration in the lungs, nervous system, against the background of normal clinical parameters. Less severe symptoms are associated with continuous treatment to slow the progression of the disease.

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