Osteoma of bone is a benign neoplasm of the human skeleton. Usually, such a disease is diagnosed in children, less often in adults, and it can be detected quite by accident during an X-ray examination.
Causes of the disease
Osteoma of the bone is often hereditary. The probability of getting such a disease by inheritance is about 50%. Also, the causes of its appearance can be: trauma, various thinness (depleted conditions of the body), sometimes the osteoma of the parietal bone is a consequence of syphilis, or a concomitant disease of rheumatism or gout.
There are three types of this disease:
- a solid osteoma, consisting of a dense substance that is located in parallel or concentric plates on the surface (this type is more common on the pelvic bones, as well as the bones of the face and skull);
- spongy osteoma;
- having numerous cavities (filled with the brain) - cerebral osteoma.
Symptoms of the disease
This disease is very rare and often develops in adolescent men. The process of osteoma formation is quite slow and most often absolutely painless. Usually, neoplasms are localized on the outer surface of the bones (flat cranial bones, the walls of the maxillary or frontal sinuses, humerus or femurs).
On the outer plates of the skull bones, the osteoma is visualized as an immovable, dense, painless formation with a smooth surface. With this method of location, it can cause severe headaches, epileptic seizures, memory disorders, and also increase intracranial pressure. When the osteoma is located in the area of the sella turcica, it can provoke the appearance of hormonal disorders.
The location of the neoplasm in the nasal region can cause the appearance of various eye diseases: decreased visual acuity, anisocoria, exophthalmos, ptosis or diplopia. And when it reaches a large size, and is located in close proximity to the nerve root (penetrates the arch or process of the vertebra), symptoms of a compressed spinal cord or deformity of the spine may appear.
Treatment of this disease is carried out only with a surgical method. An operation is prescribed according to indications, or, as the elimination of a cosmetic defect. Together with the removal of the tumor, the resection of the presenting plate, not the affected bone, is performed. In the absence of obvious symptoms of the disease, as well as any complaints from the patient, only dynamic observation of this disease is carried out.