Gangrene is the death of any part of the body. It begins and develops as a result of the cessation or sharp restriction of oxygen supply to the tissues. It can be caused by external influences (injuries, burns, frostbite, etc.) associated with poor circulation.
Internal causes of gangrene are associated with damage to blood vessels - blockage, narrowing with spasms, anatomical changes, for example, with atherosclerosis.
Distinguish between dry and wet gangrene. When dry, a putrefactive infection does not penetrate into the dead tissue. In this case, the dead tissue dries up, shrinks and thickens, the affected part decreases in volume. The dead area turns dark brown or black. This process is also called mummification. Over time, demarcation inflammation develops at the border of the dead area, which leads to its rejection.
In case of wet gangrene, on the contrary, the affected area enlarges, becomes edematous, grayish-brown in color. This is due to the penetration of a putrefactive infection into the affected area. The tissues turn into pulp, which gives off a putrid odor. Subsequently, they liquefy and disintegrate.
It is very important how the unaffected tissues nearby will behave. With their healthy reaction, the dead area can be rejected on its own. In this case, a clear border appears between healthy and dead tissues, and after rejection of the dead area, a scar is formed in this place.
If the reaction of the tissues adjacent to the affected area is sluggish, then the process extends to them. In this case, the products of putrefactive decay begin to enter the bloodstream, which often leads to severe intoxication. Treat gangrene with blood transfusions, antibiotics, and surgery. But first of all, they eliminate the infection, fight intoxication and support the work of the cardiovascular system.
To do this, the patient is injected with a large amount of liquid: glucose, isotonic solution, various blood substitutes. The methods of administration can be different: subcutaneous or intravenous. At the same time, local treatment is carried out, removing dead tissue.