Bleeding from the nose (epistaxis) can occur at any age and for a variety of reasons. This is a common condition, pathological or traumatic etiology, in which blood comes from the vessels located in the nasal cavity. In 1/6 of cases, the cause lies in the nose, everything else is a serious symptom of common chronic or systemic diseases.
Nosebleeds can be provoked by any factors that cause damage to the walls of blood vessels located in the nose, from domestic and sports injuries to serious disorders. As constantly recurrent, this symptom indicates the need for serious examination, as intense and strong - the need for emergency medical care. With the apparent absence of age restrictions, it was noted that the male half of humanity begins to walk more often at an early age (up to 10 years), or in middle and old age (after 50), and, if assistance is not provided on time, it can develop into an extreme phenomenon representing the threat of irreversible complications.
The nature of the problem
Blood can flow from both the anterior and posterior portions of the nasal cavity. In the first case, the blood will flow out, in the second, it will drain along the back of the pharynx. Drops, or a small amount, flow out of the area a centimeter from the entrance to the nose, which Kisselbach described. Approximately 90% occurs in this area due to the specific state of the vessels.
The posterior zones of the nasal cavity (lateral and septal) bleed profusely, sometimes for a long time and persistently, due to poor contractility of the vessels located there. It can be caused by various reasons. 1/5 of patients end up in the ENT doctor's office or even on the operating table after an injury (in sports, an accident, a fight, when falling, etc.). Apparently, therefore, men occupy a leading position among those who have to treat such pathologies, and women turn to much less often.
The danger of such a phenomenon lies not so much in the amount of lost blood as in the origin. The zone of origin can be located in the respiratory tract, and in the stomach, and in the esophagus, and arise in the nasal cavity. If this problem occurs quite often, it may indicate a chronic or systemic pathology, hormonal imbalance.
A child can put a foreign body into the nasal cavity, which is a serious danger, a teenager can be in a state of nervous or physical fatigue. Concomitant phenomena are also threatening: dizziness, fainting, nausea, weakness, heart palpitations, loss of consciousness in people prone to hysteria or simply elderly people. Often and for no apparent reason, recurring, regardless of what nature they are, bleeding indicates a disease, and requires immediate medical advice, the help of an ENT or other specialized doctor.
Probable causes of occurrence in children
Local and general causes of the appearance of drops or trickles of blood can be at any age. But some features are inherent in both the child and adolescent body. Local causes are manifested due to the peculiarities of the vessels of the nasal cavity and nasopharynx - a child may bleed due to the fact that the mucous membrane in this area is delicate and easily injured, and there are many vessels there. Frequent injuries, being in a room with hot and dry air, the habit of picking your nose and the presence of a foreign body can damage blood vessels and begin to bleed. But, in addition to external, relatively harmless reasons, blood can flow for a more serious reason:
- neoplasms and polyps;
- hemophilia and other diseases of hereditary etiology;
- viral and infectious diseases (scarlet fever, chickenpox, flu, tuberculosis);
- hepatic pathologies;
- increased intracranial pressure;
- ulcers in the area of the choroid plexus;
- pathology of the blood coagulation system and hematopoiesis.
In childhood, there are many provoking factors that cause bleeding: overheating in the sun, atmospheric pressure, injury or nervous damage (nose picking), after sports or emotional overload, an elementary lack of vitamins in the body. A child's nose is often traumatized, including at an early age, when the child begins to walk, but does not have a sufficiently developed coordination for this. The constant nature of nosebleeds can be due to both physiological and pathological reasons, so it is necessary to go to the doctor.
Causes of bleeding in adolescents
The main reason explaining the frequent nature of such phenomena in adolescents (as well as in pregnant women) is hormonal changes in the body. In adolescence, there is a violent and dramatic hormonal outbreak due to puberty. In second place among the causes of bleeding in adolescence is overwork, physical, nervous or emotional. An adult has great stabilizing capabilities of the nervous system, and the body of a maturing adolescent is weakened, often lacks vitamins, is exposed to colds and viral diseases. The consequence of this is the outflow of mucus from the nose, weakening of blood vessels, frequent sneezing, which can easily serve as the occurrence of bloody discharge.
A more serious diagnosis is also possible, but it is less common than the two main ones:
- pathology of the cardiovascular system;
- atrophic rhinitis;
- blood clotting disorders;
- a diseased liver in a decompensated stage;
- blood diseases;
- pathology of the cardiovascular system;
- congenital pathologies manifested as a result of a sharp hormonal change.
The necessary list of measures also begins with a trip to the doctor. It is likely that the periodic flow of blood from the nose can be stopped by taking the appropriate medication (vitamin complex, anti-stress drug or immunostimulant). It is much worse if adenoids provoke bleeding from the nose in a teenager or child - a consequence of visceral or hereditary pathology. The adenoid can cause both anterior and posterior nasopharyngeal bleeding, in which case medication alone will not help.
Epistaxis in adults
The range of possible provocateurs available to an adult is even wider than that of children and adolescents. During a difficult life path, he manages to acquire chronic pathologies of internal organs, injuries, and survive many stressful situations. Each such event can cause a flowing blood stream from the nasal or even oral cavity. In adulthood, the mucous layer is damaged not only by overdried air, but also by inhalation of harmful vapors at work or by radioactive radiation. Blood can drain in chronic diseases of the digestive organs, pathology of the cardiovascular system, in diseases of the liver and kidneys.
In old age, a person can lose consciousness even with insignificant blood loss if he has problems with blood pressure, while a healthy person in middle age can easily endure an abundant flow resulting from an injury.
Bleeding in adults has specific features that allow the ENT doctor to easily determine the localization of damage and its etiology. Therefore, it is simply vital to consult him.
Diagnosis and treatment in adults
The type of bleeding can be easily identified by its intensity and color:
- a scarlet hue and the blood begins to foam - the lung is to blame, this is indicated by the presence of scarlet blood and foam;
- a sign of gastric bleeding is a dark, coffee-like color;
- dark, but closer to red color of blood indicates nasal discharge, which can be caused by various reasons.
A drop in the latter case is a slight damage to the mucous membrane, and especially nothing needs to be done. A jet from the nose or flowing down the back of the nasopharynx will cause a stream of bloody vomit.
In any case, treatment may be necessary, even if it is sore suppression or a simple turunda to stop the bleeding. The hard-hitting jet must be stopped before the ambulance arrives. The left stream is clamped by the right hand, and the left one is lifted up, the right stream, in turn, is blocked by the left hand, and the right one is lifted up. Nasal blood that has resulted in moderate bleeding can have severe health consequences, and severe bleeding sometimes leads to hemorrhagic shock.
Any bleeding can be serious, especially if repeated regularly, and should not be left untreated.